Adaro Omar Daniel

Masones - Entrevista al GM de la Gran Logia Argentina de L y A M , Angel J. Clavero

Escrito por adaro 15-03-2009 en General. Comentarios (0)


"LA MASONERÍA ENSEÑA A PENSAR"





Angel Jorge CLAVERO,
Gran Maestre de la Gran Logia de la Argentina de Libres y Aceptados Masones.




De paso por Rosario, el Gran Maestre de la Gran Logia de la Argentina de Libres y Aceptados Masones, Ángel Jorge Clavero, destacó la misión de la antigua orden fraternal.


"La masonería sólo aspira a enseñar a los hombres a pensar. Porque actuar y luchar es importante, pero, por sobre todo y mucho más en estas épocas, es más importante saber pensar. El hombre que es capaz de pensar, que adquirió la actitud de reflexionar, está emancipado de presiones políticas, filosóficas o religiosas y es capaz de formar su propio juicio de las cosas".

 La frase es de Ángel Jorge Clavero, el Gran Maestre de la Gran Logia de la Argentina de Libres y Aceptados Masones, quien el jueves pasado disertó en Rosario invitado por la Fundación General José María Paz.

"La masonería trata de conducir a sus miembros por los esquivos senderos de las inquietudes y pensamientos humanos. Plantea la antítesis entre lo dogmático y lo agnóstico. Analiza el ser, la evolución, las grandes incógnitas de la metafísica y va escudriñando las profundidades de las concepciones morales, sociales y éticas que tanto perturban y apasionan al espíritu humano",

señala Clavero, quien nació hace 65 años en la ciudad bonaerense de Junín y está al frente de la masonería argentina desde julio pasado.

El titular de los masones argentinos agrega que estas orientaciones conducen a la búsqueda de la verdad, transitando apoyados por la razón, la ciencia y la cultura, por senderos distintos a los de las afirmaciones teólogo-filosóficas.

En esa línea, Clavero, quien trabaja desde 1975 como despachante de aduana y agente en comercio exterior, remarca que

"la masonería es, ante todo, una institución ecléctica que aspira al perfeccionamiento del hombre, conociéndose a sí mismo, practicando el amor, luchando contra la naturaleza animal en la que predomina la codicia, el egoísmo, la ambición y la egolatría; para que, una vez convencido de esas virtudes y vencidos esos vicios, pueda proyectarse a sus semejantes, tratando de construir una sociedad en la que reine la confraternidad y se permita convivir en paz".

Pero se apura por aclarar que, contra lo que se suele afirmar, la masonería (a la que define como escuela de moral y cátedra de libre pensamiento)

"no es secreta, sino discreta". Y agrega: "Yo puedo admitir que soy parte de la logia, pero no puedo revelar la pertenencia de otro hermano". "La masonería es una institución filosófica, filantrópica, educativa, laica, progresista y por sobre todo iniciática, condición esta última que le confiere una característica excepcional"

detalla el Gran Maestre, quien tiene un pasado como activo dirigente de la Unión Cívica Radical de la Capital Federal.

En tal sentido, reseña que fue convencional metropolitano, candidato a concejal y presidente del comité de la seccional 9ª desde 1991 hasta 1997.

Precisamente, cuenta que ingresó a la masonería en 1985, a los 41 años de edad, por medio de compañeros de militancia en el radicalismo, aunque aclara que hoy está alejado de los comités.

Por eso y porque jamás violaría el secreto masónico, es inútil preguntarle a Clavero si, tal como se rumorea, el vicepresidente de la Nación, el mendocino Julio César Cleto Cobos, es masón.

"La institución es pasado, presente y futuro", se limita a responder cuando se le pregunta sobre la injerencia de los "hermanos" en la política.

Es que la masonería criolla toma como un hecho "natural" que en sus talleres se hayan forjado los principales próceres de la Nación.

Así, José Francisco de San Martín, Manuel Belgrano, Mariano Moreno, Cornelio Saavedra, Juan José Paso, Juan José Castelli y Domingo Faustino Sarmiento (de cuyo fallecimiento se cumplen hoy 120 años), entre muchos otros, fueron masones y dedicaron sus vidas a trabajar por los ideales de la orden: Libertad, Igualdad y Fraternidad. Además, los archivos de la masonería dan cuenta de que 14 presidentes argentinos pertenecieron a la fraternidad, entre ellos Bernardino Rivadavia, Vicente López y Planes, Justo José de Urquiza, Bartolomé Mitre e Hipólito Yrigoyen.

Otros destacados hombres como Leandro Nicéforo Alem, Lisandro de la Torre, Roque Pérez, Nicasio Oroño, Ovidio Lagos, José Hernández, Pascual Rosas, Juan B. Justo y Alfredo Palacios también fueron masones.

Con todo, Clavero aclara que no es la orden como tal la que participa en política sino sus miembros, y añade que actualmente hay en la Argentina entre 12.000 y 14.000 masones, de los cuales 4.000 a 5.000 están activos, es decir que son los que regularmente concurren a las logias.

Finalmente, Clavero niega que hoy la Iglesia Católica rechace a la Orden.

"En otras épocas las luchas entre la Iglesia y los sectores liberales eran cruentas. Pero ahora la masonería recibe en su seno a hombres de educación católica sin problemas. De hecho, la gran mayoría de los masones argentinos, incluido yo, provenimos de hogares católicos"


ejemplifica Clavero, quien está casado desde hace 36 años y tiene una hija.



Los orígenes del fútbol rosarino, una cuestión de "hermanos"
 
Una lejana mañana de 1869, mientras el sol despuntaba en Rosario, un joven aventurero de 16 años desembarcó del buque de carga que lo trajo desde su Inglaterra natal en un muelle del ferrocarril sobre calle Entre Ríos.

Después, remontó esa calle y golpeó a la puerta de la casona de don Guillermo Wheelwright, el norteamericano que impulsó el ferrocarril en esta zona del país.

El joven era Isaac Newell y traía una carta de recomendación de su padre masón para el "hermano" Wheelwright, quien le dio empleo como telegrafista del ferrocarril.

Luego, Isaac Newell volvió a Inglaterra y desde allí trajo a Rosario la primera pelota de cuero y el primer reglamento oficial de fútbol aprobado por la Internacional Board en 1882.

Y en el establecimiento educativo que fundó junto a su mujer, Anna Margarita Jockinsen, el Colegio Comercial Anglo Argentino, en Entre Ríos 139 (la ex casona de Wheelwright, donde hoy funciona la Escuela de Enseñanza Media Nº 431 y que ahora se pretende declarar como sitio histórico), se comenzó a practicar el fútbol en Rosario.

El hijo de Isaac, Claudio Lorenzo Newell, siguió la tradición familiar francmasónica e incluso llegó a presidir la logia Unión 17, decana de los talleres rosarinos.

También era masón el inglés mister Colin Bolin Calder, quien junto con otros funcionarios jerárquicos del Ferrocarril Central Argentino fundó, el 24 de diciembre de 1889, el Central Argentine Railway Athletic Club, que en 1903 fue rebautizado como Club Atlético Rosario Central.



 Una cofradía de legendario pasado
 
La masonería es legendaria y son remotos los orígenes de sus órdenes y sus ritos.

Las logias actuales (especulativas) emulan a los gremios medievales de la construcción (logias operativas) cuyos maestros y operarios, ocupados en levantar catedrales prodigiosas, concentraban el saber teórico y práctico de la arquitectura.

El término masón deriva del francés maçon, albañil; los miembros de la orden visten el mandil, delantal del oficio, y trabajan en la ejecución del plan de Dios, a quien denominan el Gran Arquitecto del Universo.

La gran catedral que construyen es la Humanidad; su faena cotidiana es el perfeccionamiento de sí mismos y el progreso de los demás.

Entre sus símbolos se destacan el compás y la escuadra, que imponen la equidistancia entre los hombres y la rectitud en el pensamiento y en la acción.

Los masones llaman "tenidas" a las reuniones reservadas que los juntan según sus antiguos ritos y ceremonias.

En ellas se congregaron destacadas figuras de la humanidad.

Filósofos como Goethe y Voltaire; colosos de la música como Ludwig van Beethoven y Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart; líderes como Napoleón, Garibaldi, José Martí, Augusto Sandino, Franklin Delano Roosevelt y Salvador Allende; escritores como Jonathan Swift, Mark Twain y Arthur Conan Doyle, poetas como Oscar Wilde y Rubén Darío;  astronautas como Neil Armstrong y John Glenn; pacifistas como el Mahatma Gandhi y Martin Luther King; y artistas como Douglas Fairbanks, Charles Chaplin, Harry Houdini, Groucho Marx, Glenn Miller, Louis Armstrong y Walt Disney forjaron sus personalidades en las logias.
 
 
 

Omar Daniel ADARO RODRIGUEZ

MM Resp:. Logia "Gral. José de San Martín Nº 441"

Ciudad de San Martín - Partido de San Martín

Provincia de Buenos Aires - República Argentina

 
 
 

Masones y Mormones - Gran Maestre de Utah es mormon

Escrito por adaro 13-03-2009 en General. Comentarios (4)

 

 

 





Un Mormon Mason - El nuevo Gran Maestro en Utah

 

Este es un articulo publicado en Cumorah

 

 

 

 

 

Es importante señalar que en Latinoamérica es practicamente satanizada la Masonería, es poco lo que sé de ellos (los Masones), pero lo que sé es que compartimos muchos, pero muchos buenos principios y acciones que es lo importante. Ahora si publico el articulo:

 

 
Antes que algunos se tiren de cabeza a mi cuello por lo que voy a escribir, les dare la linea de autoridad del articulo: Salio publicado en Mormon Times, un blog propiedad de Deseret News, un periódico propiedad de la Iglesia, asi que si alguen tiene algún problema, ya sabe a quien tiene que dirigirse.

 

Resulta que este fin de semana fue noticia en el idílico y santificado Estado de Utah el hecho de que por primera vez en mas de 100 años fue nombrado como Gran Maestro, algo asi como el super jefe, un miembro de  la Iglesia.

 

Ahora, leyendo la noticia, no es que los Mormones no tuviesen permiso o no quisiesen entrar a la Masonería por instrucciones de la Iglesia, al contrario, era la Masonería (del Estado de Utah) la que tenía prohibido que ingresase algun Mormón a su fraternidad.

 

El favorecido es un hermano llamado Glen Cook, abogado criminalista y graduado de la BYU.

 

 

Glen Cook, Masón y Mormón activo es el

Gran Maestre Nº 137 del Estado de Utah

 

 

Se cree que es el primer Mormón en llegar a ese puesto en mas de 100 años, desde el tiempo de los pioneros cuando Masones y Mormones se agarraron mala entre ellos.

Esto es algo interesante, se ha de recordar que tanto el Profeta como su hermano Hyrum, como asimismo los siguentes cuatro presidentes de la Iglesia (Young, Taylor, Woodruff y Snow) participaron de la Logia de Nauvoo, sin embargo, luego del éxodo al oeste los Mormones dejaron de participar en estas actividades.

 

Segun Cook, al parecer los pioneros estaban demasiado ocupados con eso de ser pioneros, fundar ciudades, hacer canales, ser buenos Mormones y ademas ir donde los Masones, too much para ellos.

 

 

Ademas hay que considerar que la relación con la Masonería por parte de los miembros de la Iglesia fue casi una moda que duro el par de años que estuvieron en Nauvoo, antes no hay mucha relación, después tampoco; Algunos también especulan que los líderes de la Iglesia en cierta forma comenzaron a desaprobar a la Masonería, pero no hay nada concluyente al respecto.

 

Fuese lo que fuese, el caso es que los Mormones y los Masones comenzaron a tenerse bastante mala hasta el punto que los Masones dieron una orden en 1925 prohibiendo que cualquier Mormón se metiese a las Logias de Utah (un baneo solo para utah y no el resto del mundo).

 

 Esta regla permaneció hasta 1984, año en el cual la levantan y permiten ingresar a los Mormones que quieran entrar.

 

 

 Brigham Young luciendo pin Masónico en su pecho.

 

 

Para todo el que sepa, hay algunas similitudes entre las creencias y ceremonias de la Iglesia y de la Masonería, sin embargo, tambien hay gruesas diferencias.

 

En general, existe la creencia entre los miembros de la Iglesia que Masonería y Mormonismo comparten un origen común, y que las ceremonias nuestras serían como versiones completas y corregidas de un poco de conocimiento que tendrían los Masones.

 

A pesar de que muchos miembros, sobre todo en latinoamerica por el legado católico, una institución que siempre peleo contra los Masones, tienen el concepto de que "un Mormón no puede ser Masón", no existe una instrucción al respecto.

 

Según la "Enclyclopedia of Mormonism", libro publicado bajo la dirección de la Primera Presidencia y los Apóstoles:

 

"la filosofia y los principios fundamentales de la Francmasonería no son fundamentalmente incompatibles con las enseñanzas, la teología y las doctrinas de los Santos de los Ultimos Días. Ambos enfatizan la moralidad, sacrificio y la consagración, asi como condenan el egoísmo, el pecado y la avaricia. Aun más, el objetivo del Ritual Masónico es instruir al hombre para hacer la verdad disponible de modo que el hombre pueda seguirlo."

 

Las semenjanzas entre ambos ritos "son limitadas solo a una pequeña proporción de acciones y palabras" esto según la enciclopedia "y donde los dos rituales comparten simbolismo, los significados de ellos son muy diferentes".

 

El artículo concluye comentando que el hermano Cook ha visto en los ultimos años un acercamiento entre los Mormones (nunca habla de la Iglesia, habla de los Mormones como sociedad) y la Masonería que ha ayudado a derrumbar los prejuicios de los unos contra los otros, y que tiene todo el ánimo de seguir en ello bajo la bandera del amor fraternal, creencias y verdad.


Brigham Young y su pin Masónico de

Escuadra y Compás sobre su camisa
 

 

 
 
LDS primer Gran Maestre en Utah: Glenn Cook MW Hermano en la Gran Logia de Utah. 
 
 En un artículo sobre el 29 de marzo de 2008 la cuestión de Deseret Noticias por Carrie Una Moore, titulado "Un Mormón Mason: Nuevo Gran Maestre es la primera en un siglo que se LDS", informó que: "Ha sido casi un cuarto de siglo desde Francmasones en Utah anulado una prohibición de 60 años que prohíbe Santos de los Últimos Días (LDS) de unirse a su fraternidad.
 
Y mientras que muchos recuerden la división religiosa que había caracterizado la Francmasonería en el Estado Colmena de pionero veces, Glen Cook cree que es prueba de que las cosas están cambiando entre sus hermanos masónicos. 
 
"Cook, uno de Salt Lake penal abogado defensor y la Universidad Brigham Young escuela de derecho de postgrado, que se cree que es el primer miembro de La Iglesia de Jesucristo de los Santos de los Últimos Días a ser elegido Gran Maestre en Utah en casi un siglo, la supervisión de las actividades de varios Logias de todo el Estado y que buscan hacer que el grupo más abierto a la comprensión del público.
 
"Durante una reciente gira por el Templo Masónico en el centro de Salt Lake City después de su instalación en febrero, Cook dijo que hay ideas erróneas acerca de la Francmasonería definido en Utah, en particular entre los Santos de los Últimos Días", pero también hay algunos y la realidad existe ".
 
"Cook dice que el hecho de que la adhesión requiere la creencia en un ser supremo y la voluntad de hacer las obligaciones a sus compañeros a través de Masones Masónica rituales y símbolos que tienen cierta similitud con limitada templo LDS ceremonias también fomentar un malentendido de lo que es la fraternidad, y no lo es.
 
" No hay duda de que elementos de la (LDS templo) y dotación de rituales masónicos son similares", dijo Cook.
 
"La cuestión de fieles Santos de los Últimos Días es que si hace una diferencia. tienden a ser más bien un pensador concreto."
 
 "Para aquellos que acepten a José Smith como un profeta y creo que él realmente vio Dios y Jesucristo en la visión como un precursor de la restauración de la antigua iglesia de Cristo," y luego el resto, me permito sugerir, debería ser un corolario de esta creencia.
 
"Creo que a veces pasamos demasiado tiempo preocupándose por cuestiones que no son realmente importantes para nuestra salvación"  "Nada de lo dispuesto en LDS fe se opone a la práctica o los santos del último día de cada Masones, dijo, aunque la familia y la iglesia obligaciones podrán limitar la cantidad de tiempo que los hombres Mormón puede gastar en otras actividades como la Masonería.
 
Masonería debe ser un complemento a su fe y no una barrera para su ejercicio," dijo Cook.
 
"La Enciclopedia del Mormonismo " aborda preguntas acerca de la fe de la opinión de la Fraternidad, señalando " la filosofía y los principales principios de la Francmasonería no son fundamentalmente incompatibles con la enseñanza, la teología y las doctrinas de los Santos de los Últimos Días.
 
Ambos hacen hincapié en la moral, el sacrificio, consagración y servicio, y tanto condenar el egoísmo, el pecado y la codicia. 
 
Además, el objetivo del ritual masónico es instruir - disponible para hacer la verdad para que el hombre puede seguir. " 
 
"El ritual de semejanzas entre los dos" están limitados a una pequeña proporción de las acciones y palabras ", de acuerdo a la enciclopedia, y" donde los dos rituales comparten simbolismo, el tejido de significados es diferente. " 
 
"Cook, dijo que ve señales de Utah en el que la fraternidad es una nueva apertura hacia el desarrollo de la comunidad en general, y hacia los santos del último día en particular, pone de manifiesto no sólo por su reciente instalación en las ceremonias que se han abierto al público, sino también en una voluntad de reconocer la fe de manera que no haya sido previamente reconocido. 
 
"Creo que esas tres cosas que me marcó realmente el cambio que se ha producido. ... Creo que LDS cultura ha cambiado, y que hoy en día, las actividades cívicas no son inapropiadas".
 
"En cuanto a lo que planea hacer hincapié durante su mandato como la 137a gran maestro de Utah, Cook dijo que se centrará en los principios de fraternidad amor fraternal, el socorro y la verdad. 
 
"Me parece que se Francmasonería algo en lo que a maravilla, para ser algo que ver en el impresionante",escribió Cook en un reciente mensaje publicado en un boletín fraterna.
 
"En un mundo en el que los hombres la guerra y derramar la sangre de los inocentes por motivos de raza, origen étnico y tribu, nos hemos unido ... sin tener en cuenta el color de la piel de un hombre, el cuidado sólo el tenor de su corazón." 
 
"En resumen, los Masones" son hombres que intentan llevar la vida moral y en posición vertical.
 
Contribuyen de manera significativa no sólo de forma privada, pero en una vía pública "y, dijo, señalando que los fondos Shriner's Hospital for Children, ayudar a la investigación con la artritis y otras causas. 
 
"Es el lugar donde he encontrado amigos, los hombres que han cuidado de mí y mi familia y celebrar los valores morales que tengo". 
 
Para leer el artículo completo, por favor haga clic en Noticias Deseret encima o aquí. 
 
(Vía correo electrónico WBro por Allan M. Lacson, PM, Teikoku 19, Okinawa 118)

 Por Carrie A. Moore
Deseret Morning News

 Publicado: sábado, marzo 29, 2008 12:41 AM MDT

 
  

Omar Daniel ADARO RODRIGUEZ 

 

http://adaro.blogspot.es/img/moroni1.jpg

                 Sumo Sacerdote  -  Sacerdocio de Melquisedec

Barrio Munro - Estaca Bs. As. Norte

República Argentina

 

 

Maestro Masón - Rito Escocés Ant. y Aceptado

Resp. Logia "Gral. José de S. Martín Nº 441"

Ciudad de S. Martín - Partido de Gral. S. Martín

Provincia de Bs. As. - República Argentina

 

 

 
 
 
 
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Afterleaving the Midwest for what was then the Utah Territory, mostLatter-day Saints eventually ceased active involvement withFreemasonry, despite the fact that lodges were chartered here beginningin 1859. Después de dejar el centro-oeste de lo que entonces erael Territorio de Utah, la mayoría de los Últimos Días Santos finalmentecesó la participación activa de la Francmasonería, a pesar de que sepresenta aquí fletado comienzo en 1859. Cooksaid he thinks pioneer Latter-day Saints simply were too busy trying tobuild a city in the desert and serving their church to participate.Cook dijo que piensa pioneros Santos de los Últimos Días simplementeestaban demasiado ocupados tratando de construir una ciudad en eldesierto y al servicio de su iglesia a participar. Some historians have speculated about whether Freemasonry was discouraged by LDS leaders. Algunos historiadores han especulado acerca de si la Francmasonería fue desalentado por LDS dirigentes.

Whetheror not that was the case, religious tension within the organizationescalated to the point that, in 1925, "the Utah Grand Lodge Codeprecluded any Mormon ... totally from any relationship whatsoever" withMasonry in Utah, according to author Mervin Hogan's 1978 book, "TheOrigin and Growth of Utah Masonry and Its Conflict With Mormonism."Sea o no era el caso, la tensión religiosa dentro de la organizaciónintensificado hasta el punto de que, en 1925, "la Gran Logia de UtahCódigo impidió cualquier Mormón ... totalmente de toda relación alguna"con la Masonería en el Estado de Utah, de acuerdo al autor del MervinHogan libro 1978, "El origen y crecimiento de Utah y la Masonería suconflicto con el Mormonismo."

That provision of the code remained in force until 1984, when it was rescinded. Esa disposición del código en vigor hasta 1984, cuando fue revocada.

Freemasonryis not a religious practice, but confusion about what it is stems inpart from the fact that the fraternity is believed by many historiansto have originated in the ancient world because its symbols and ritualsbear some similarity to sacred ceremonies that existed among theEgyptians, Coptic Christians, Israelites and even the Catholic andProtestant liturgies — all thought to have some common biblical source.Masonería no es una práctica religiosa, pero la confusión acerca de loque se deriva en parte del hecho de que la Fraternidad se cree pormuchos historiadores que se han originado en el mundo antiguo ya sussímbolos y rituales tienen cierta similitud con las ceremonias sagradasque existían entre los egipcios , cristianos coptos, israelitas eincluso de la liturgia católica y protestante - cree que todos tenganalgo en común bíblica fuente.










Masones - Rosacrucismo y Masonería grado 18º (Inglés)

Escrito por adaro 13-03-2009 en General. Comentarios (1)


The First Rosicrucians

Recent discoveries have revolutionised knowledge of the Fraternity of the Rosy Cross. Tobias Churton reveals an extraordinary new picture

An innocent trip from Heilegenkreuz in the Tyrol to Innsbruck in theautumn of 1612 brought a shock to Adam Haslmayr, musician, theosopher,medical celebrity and notary public to the Archduke Maximilian. On theorders of the Jesuit inquisitor Guarinoni, Haslmayr was arrested andsentenced to slavery on the Mediterranean galleys. Why? In March Haslmayr had published his answer to the Fama Fraternitatis –the Fame of the Fraternity – an extraordinary manuscript which had beenprivately distributed to persons with an interest in the advancement ofscience and religion in a corrupt society.

The Fama

The Fama Fraternitatis announced the existence of a discretefraternity founded in the late middle ages by a German nobleman,brother C.R. Dissatisfied with monastic life, the youth had travelledto the east in search of wisdom. Finding himself welcomed "as one longexpected" by the sages of ‘Damcar’ in Arabia, he translated theirmasterpiece on the mathematical and magical universe into Latin.Sojourning in Fez, he observed how the savants shared their knowledgewithout jealousy, hypocrisy or egoism. Hoping to share his discoveries with Europe, brother C.R. found onlyindifference. So he established a fraternity of sympathetic brethren,the Fratres R.C., who met annually in secret in their House of the HolySpirit to further a total reformation of knowledge.So why communicate now? The Fratres R.C. claimed to have been stirred by the discovery ofbrother C.R.’s body - "whole and unconsumed" - in an extraordinaryvault in Gallia Narbonensis (Languedoc). Constructed as a "compendiumof the universe", an inscription on the vault’s door accuratelypredicted the time (120 years) between burial and discovery. Europe stood at the threshold of a golden age of divine revelation.Recent advances in geography, technology, cosmology and medicine wereno accident. The Fraternity had been at work – and now wished to hearthe responses of those who might wish to join it. The false need notapply.

Paracelsus

Adam Haslmayr loved the Fama and everything it stood for. Hewas particularly moved by its consistency with the ideas of Paracelsus(1483-1541), the "German Trismegistus" and the greatest and mostcontroversial medical doctor of the age. Paracelsus had introducedchemistry to medicine, believed in the virtue of experiment, had morefaith in the ‘book of nature’ than received paper authority, got hishands dirty and tirelessly fulminated against those who could spout butcould not cure. Such is well known. What is far less known is thatParacelsus, inspired by the Hermetic tradition, wrote volumes on thesubject of religion. Kept secret in his lifetime they would becometime-bombs after his death.Paracelsus held to a gnostic cosmogony: Man was a microcosm of theuniverse, but the spirit that gives life was generally trapped in grossmatter. The result : spiritual and bodily sickness. This prognosisapplied as much to the churches as to the body. He had no time for theexternal church of stone, but believed in the church of spirit, theinner Word. As his follower Haslmayr put it, God does not need bishopsor professors to tell him where to go, what to do, or to whom He shouldspeak. Paracelsus regarded Catholic and Protestant disputants alike asliars. Paracelsus’ own middle name, Theophrastus, means God-speaker orGod-expounder, and he lived up to it. Followers such as Haslmayr tookit as the name for a ‘new’ religion, the Theophrastia Sancta orreligion of the two lights: the light of grace and the light of nature.Follow the ‘divine signatures’ in Nature and a harmony invisible to thedisharmonious mind would appear. The priest was doctor; the doctorscientist; the scientist priest. Paracelsus prophesied the comingGolden Age of Grace. The magi were returning. What Haslmayr read in the Fama chimed in with the Paracelsian bell, andin his printed Antwort (`Answer’) of March 1612 he thanked the Brethrenof the Rose Cross for their divine gift and Theophrastiam. He wentfurther. He declared that the Rose Cross Brothers constituted the real‘Society of Jesus’. Jesuit inquisitor Guarinoni was unimpressed.

The Alchemist Prince at Plötzkau

In December 1611 Prince Augustus von Anhalt, based at SchlossPlötzkau near Magdeburg, became the first known person to try tocontact the Fratres R.C. We know this thanks to the peerless work ofSpanish scholar Carlos Gilly who, during the 1980’s, discoveredcorrespondence between Prince Augustus and the Augsburg physician CarlWidemann. Augustus, dedicated to transmutation, respected Widemann’salchemical skills. Widemann had been secretary to British alchemist(and long time seer for the famous John Dee) Edward Kelley, in Prague(1587-88).For years Widemann had been collecting the red-hot theological writingsof Paracelsus, as well as those of the radical reformers CasparSchwenckfeld (1489-1561), Sebastian Franck (1499-1542) and ValentinWeigel (1533-1588). These works of alchemico-spiritual Christosophyscandalised the closed worlds of all the proponents of authoritarianreligion in the 16th century. Furthermore, Widemann shared Haslmayr’sunderstanding of the Theophrastia Sancta as "a sort of perpetualreligion, which since the days of the apostles had been practised inconcealment until the time when the German Trismegistus, PhilippusTheophrastus [Paracelsus] began publicly to expound its meaning."(Gilly). In summer 1611, Widemann encouraged Augustus to offer Haslmayr the taskof assembling ‘Theophrastian’ texts for the prince’s secret printingpress at Plötzkau. In December, Augustus received a new year’s presentfrom Haslmayr – copies of both the Fama and his response to it. PrinceAugustus "read it [the Fama] and re-read it again" (letter ofAugustus-Widemann, Jan. 1612). Deeply hooked, he asked Widemann how hemight obtain the Fama’s promised follow-up, the Confessio. Widemann wasaware that the manuscript of the Fama had been disseminated from thehouse of one Tobias Hess in Tübingen, Württemburg. Enquiries, however,yielded nothing.In August 1612, Haslmayr tried another approach, requesting permissionfrom Archduke Maximilian of the Tyrol to go to Montpellier to searchfor the Fratres R.C. Thanks to the inquisitor Guarinoni, Halsmayr’sstony path would take him not to Languedoc, but to the port of Genoa –and the galleys of the Habsburgs. There he suffered for five terribleyears.

Tübingen friendships

If ever there was a ‘real Rosicrucian Fraternity’, the nearest onemight get to it would be to understand the common and complementaryelements of mind subsisting between the following three brilliantfriends of Tübingen : Dr Tobias Hess (1568-1614), the eldest of thethree; Christoph Besold (1577-1649), who gained the Chair ofJurisprudence at Tübingen in 1610, and perhaps not only the youngest,but the greatest of the three - Johann Valentin Andreae (1586-1654).To their amazingly fertile relationship, Besold brought a thoroughinternal knowledge of medieval mysticism and Hermetic philosophy. Hessbrought a profound knowledge of theology, Paracelsian medicine,astronomy/ astrology and apocalyptic symbolism. Andreae brought agenius soaked in classical literature, a dazzling knowledge ofalchemical philosophy and practice, acute political sensitivity withfull knowledge of the Renaissance Platonism of Pico della Mirandola,Giordano Bruno, Reuchlin, and deep acquaintance with the radicalChristianity of Franck, Schwenckfeld, Weigel and Paracelsus. Andreaewas also a highly gifted dramatist with a staggeringly explosive senseof humour. The Fama overflows with Andreae’s wizened irony and pristinespirituality while its soul breathes the air of the youthful idealist,crying out through a ludibrious allegory for a reform of the entireknowledge base of western Europe. He demands a place and peopleundivided by confessional differences, dedicated to pursuing the light of naturein the light of grace on the cornerstone of the Christ who says, "Thetruth will make you free."The trouble was that almost nobody knew that Andreae was the author.The text – as we have seen from the case of Augustus von Anhalt – wastaken literally. Soon it would be too late to admit it.

Publication and publicity

After his arrest, Haslmayr’s manuscripts - including a copy ofthe Fama - had been entrusted to the ‘Theophrastian’ believerBenedictus Figulus. Having been made subject to an arrest-warrant inFreiburg, Figulus journeyed 150 miles north to Marburg in Hesse-Cassel.There he deposited Haslmayr’s manuscripts at the home of Raphael Eglin,an alchemist patronised by the Landgrave Moritz von Hessen (based atCassel). Eglin’s manuscripts, including those of Adam Haslmayr, are nowin Cassel. Cassel was the base of the printer Wilhelm Wessel.In March 1614 Wessel printed the Fama Fraternitatis. Significantly, thepublication also included an extract from Trajano Boccalini’s satiricalNews from Parnassus. The general Reformation of the whole wide world,hot from the liberal (and politically threatened) Republic of Venice.This ensured that the Fama was immediately linked to an itinerary ofglobal Reformation. The "greatest publicity-stunt of all time"(McIntosh) had begun.

The concluding part of this article will appear in the next issue.

Further Reading:
Cimelia Rhodostaurotica. Theophrastia Sancta – Paracelsianism as areligion in conflict with the established churches, Carlos Gilly (In dePelikaan, 1995, 1999).
The Rosicrucians, Christopher McIntosh (Weiser, 1997).
The True Story of the Rosicrucians, Tobias Churton (Sabiot Trucohn Books, 1998).

Tobias Churton, MA , is a writer, poet, musician and film-maker who hasspecialised in the study of Gnostic and related traditions. He isauthor of The Gnostics, 1987 (republished Barnes & Noble, 1997),and The True Story of the Rosicrucians, the foremost study of thesubject in English. Creator of the award-winning Channel Fourproduction, The Gnostics.

Text © Tobias Churton 2001



The Rose Croix

Matthew Christmas explains the 18th Degree of the Ancient and Accepted Rite

Of all the many orders and degrees outside the Craft and the RoyalArch, there is no doubt that for many the pinnacle of their Freemasonryis membership of the Ancient and Accepted Rite. The 18º is the one'beyond' the Craft that they would be most reluctant to lose. It isvery rare to hear any member speak lightly about the Rose Croix. Theyare right to value it so highly.

Christian Degrees

The degrees beyond the Craft are many and varied. Whilst thereare ways of classifying and grouping them together, there are thosereferred to as Christian Orders, in that they restrict their membershipto those avowing the Christian faith. These include the KnightsTemplar, the Red Cross of Constantine, Knight Templar Priests and theRoyal Order of Scotland. Perhaps the most well known is the Ancient andAccepted Rite of 33 Degrees working under the Supreme Council 33º,based at 10 Duke Street St James, London. It is the 18º, 'Knight of thePelican and Eagle and Sovereign Prince Rose Croix', or simply RoseCroix, which is the most spoken of and while masons outside the Ordermay know little else of it, they appreciate that it is highly prized. I must, however, caution masons from rushing into the 18º or claimingto be a Trinitarian Christian if they do not fully understand thatdoctrine. Being an occasional churchgoer will simply not give thatcomprehension. The Rose Croix is not a badge to be collected, norindeed are any such Orders; Rose Croix Chapters choose their candidateswith great care. The ceremony demands real thought and Christianunderstanding before undertaking it; thus for good reason, membershipof the A & A Rite should ideally be by invitation. However, rank inthe Craft or other degrees should also have no bearing; a mason'sself-awareness and Christian faith is not measured by the size orornamentation of his apron.

History and Origins

The History of the Rose Croix and its antecedents is complex. Anysummary such as here will leave out an enormous amount of detail! TheRite was allegedly constituted by Frederick II (the Great) of Prussiain 1762, but there was certainly some form of Rose Croix - encompassinga whole host of prior influences from the Renaissance, Kabbalah,Rosicrucianism, and Enlightenment thought - being conferred in Franceby the 1760s. Variants of the degree arrived in England in differentforms and by the 1770s the Rosae Crucis degree was being conferred inKnight Templar Encampments – now called Preceptories. The superblynamed Dr. Crucefix, a mason with a considerable interest in degreesoutside the Craft, obtained a patent from America backdated to October1845 and he, along with other Knights Templar, formed an EnglishSupreme Council. The story from there on is one of this Supreme Counciltaking control of the Rose Croix and persuading the Knights Templar togive up their Rosae Crucis ceremony along with another form of thedegree now called the Knight Kadosh (the current 30º), then oftenreferred to as 'Ne Plus Ultra' ('nothing higher'), while at the sametime warranting chapters of its own. My own Chapter – then Metropolitanand now Grand Metropolitan – was formed very shortly after the patentissued to Supreme Council and for some considerable time was useddirectly by Supreme Council to induct suitable brethren on its behalfwith members of Supreme Council actively involved in these ceremoniesand in the day-to-day business of the Chapter.

The Supreme Council

England's Supreme Council today has come a long way from thatearly `Scottish’ or `Ecossais Masonry’ (hence in the USA and elsewherethese degrees are often referred to as the Scottish Rite) in thepolitically charged Europe of the Eighteenth Century. Of the 33degrees, only five - 18º, 30º, 31º, 32º and 33º - are conferred in fullon candidates with the latter four being reserved for those Princes(the word for 18º masons) who have served the Order with distinction. The first three degrees of the Rite are considered to be equal to thoseof Craft masonry and so prior to being 'perfected' in the 18º, the'Intermediate Degrees' from 4º to 17º are conferred on candidates byname; the same happening with the 19º - 29º before receiving theovertly templar Kadosh 30º. One or two of these degrees are stagedannually as demonstrations and very interesting they are. However, the fact that there are degrees numbered 'above' the 3º ofMaster Mason should not lead one to see any of them as 'higher' thanthe Craft. They have little bearing on the 18º itself, except intracing the candidate's progress from symbolic, Old Testament masonryto that of the New Testament era and the New Covenant which is at theheart of Rose Croix. For such masons, the level of thought has moved onto encompass the life and message of Christ, but one should not thinkin terms of higher degrees or, worse still, of greater rank orpromotion.

Emblems of the Order

Although no fan of regalia myself - so often the jewels,sashes, aprons, and collarettes seem with their emphasis on rank andstatus to get in the way of what the degree is really about - therose-pink collar of 18º is not only beautiful, but conveys many of thelessons of the degree. Embroidered with key symbols - the Rose, thePelican in its Piety, the Crown of Thorns, the Serpent - it serves the'perfected mason' as a wonderful aid in the teaching of Rose Croix andis used as such in the ritual. Many regret the passing of the beautifulaprons with the tetragrammaton within a blazing triangle and, onceagain, the pelican's mythical vulning of itself to feed its young withits blood in allusion to the ultimate sacrifice of Christ himself. Asto the abolition of the aprons in 1978, some cite their expense, othersthe inappropriateness of knights of a Christian Order clothed in apronsoriginating in the Operative past. However, one cannot but envy theBaldwyn Encampment stationed at Bristol who still proudly wear them.

Why seek Perfection?

The collars and former aprons add to this most visual and Christian ofdegrees. So why Rose Croix? The Cross needs no explanation, while theRed Rose alludes both to the Precious Blood and to the Rose of Sharon,mystically identified with Christ. There is also a link withRosicrucian thought, despite some members being keen to downplay it. In the ceremony the Candidate is taken from room to room figurativelythrough his spiritual and masonic life from Solomonic Masonry, throughdespair, to a Rose Croix Chapter and the discovery of the Lost Word. Atthe start, he is figuratively but a 17º mason, a Knight of the East andWest, of symbolic age, coming – as the ritual explains - at a time ofdire calamity with but incomplete pre-Christian knowledge. Followingperfection, the ensuing "feast of fraternal affection" is a wonderfulmoment of shared Freemasonry all too often lost in other degrees. Thatthis 18º is special is not in doubt for those on whom it has beenconferred. In Bristol, the members of Baldwyn have their own version asthe pinnacle of their unique Rite of Seven Degrees. Rose Croix, like Freemasonry as a whole, is not a religion. It does,however, serve to point the way. It is this which makes Rose Croixmasonically so important, encompassing all we seek, while pointing usclearly to the Trinitarian Christian Faith.

Matthew Christmas is First General of the Grand Metropolitan Chapter of Princes Rose Croix No. 1.


FREEMASONRY TODAY
The Rosicrucian Furore

In part two of his exploration Tobias Churton reveals the impact of the enigmatic 'Rosicrucian Manifesto'

A cipher note made by Freemason, Elias Ashmole, during the early 1650’s reads:
"The Fratres RC: live about Strasburg :
7 miles from thence in a mon[a]st[e]ry."

In fact, there were no fratres R.C. anywhere, but for nearly a decadeafter the printing of the Fama Fraternitatis, the first `RosicrucianManifesto’, by Wilhelm Wessel in 1614, a ‘battle of the books’convinced thousands of European scholars that there were.
   Alerted to the Fama’s follow-up, the Confessio Fraternitatis (1615)and, later, The Chemical Wedding of Christian Rosenkreuz (1616), boundtomes and hurried pamphlets flew in all directions. Some sparkedremarkable jousts, such as the controversy on the place of soul inscience, others just begged admittance to the fratres R.C. Some claimedto know who the fratres R.C. were, others claimed spurious membership.Where some found rare allegorical meaning, others were shocked toreveal the world’s first full-blown multinational conspiracy story.

The Collegium Fraternitatis, "College of theRosicrucian Fraternity (or Brotherhood)", freely moves about the worldunder Divine guidance. Its wings and wheels reveal it moves in time andspace. Noah’s Ark sits upon a hill to the left: suggesting thatknowledge, also now contained in the "College", is impervious to changefrom the vicissitudes of humanity, like the Truth it carries. TheCollege is the home to the seeker; it draws forth the seeker from theprison of the world ( an allusion to Andreae’s Chemical Wedding)symbolised by the figure being drawn out of a well at bottom left ofthe illustration. Above the door is written "the worthy may approach";on the left is a rose, on the right a cross. From TheophilusSchweighardt (pseud. of Daniel Mögling), Speculum SophicumRhodo-Stauroticum (1618).

The Invisible Brotherhood

As we saw in Part One, in the case of Adam Haslmayr who was sentencedto slavery on the Mediterranean galleys, the stakes could be high. Thenephew of the printer of the Fama Fraternitatis, Philipp Homagius, wastried by Marburg University in 1620 and incarcerated for life for hisintemperate love of things Rosicrucian. But there was neither faggotnor fire for the Rosicrucians themselves. The otherworldly fratres R.C.were nowhere to be seen – then, concluded their enemies, the infernalbrethren must be invisible! As the Thirty Years War exploded across the1620’s, philosopher Descartes himself was accused in Catholic Paris ofbeing a Rosicrucian. ‘How could this be?’ responded the founder of themechanistic philosophy, ‘all the world knows they are invisible’.
   Even in the comparative safety of Lutheran Tübingen, Andreae and hisfriends came under scrutiny. Caspar Bücher, professor of oratory,smelled subversion.
   In a sense, the bellicose Bücher was right. Andreae’s amazing satireMenippus (1617) revealed his political acuity. Andreae anonymouslyadvocated the full confessional freedom denied to the world byLutherans, Calvinists and Catholics. Scanning the Lutheran states of1617, 100 years after Luther’s break with Rome, Andreae heard anuncritical glee, hoarse with self-congratulation, wallowing in acentenary of spurious ‘freedom’.
   Andreae, himself a Lutheran deacon, declared this Protestant excitementa fraud. The true Reformation had hardly begun. He recalled that Lutherhad condemned anyone who didn’t agree with him. His followerspersecuted those who read Franck, Schwenckfeld, Weigel and thereligious works of Paracelsus – not to mention the ‘Rosicrucians’ whoseonly ‘sins’ were "to heal the sick, gratis", and to wish for auniversal science and education within a loving Christian society.
   Professor Bücher called Menippus "an alchemical abortion" andsuccessfully sought the work’s suppression in Tübingen. Andreae triedanother tack. His Invitatio Fraternitatis Christi (1617) invited hisreaders to join the Fraternitas Christi, the fraternity of Christ –undoubtedly an ‘invisible’ society since few had the ability torecognise its existence. Andreae warned that true Christiandiscipleship could involve some very hard labour indeed, for itsalchemical gold was the practise of sacred love.
   Very few grasped Andreae’s proffered hand, preferring the fantasticalfratres R.C., with their promise of "more gold than both the Indiesbring to the King of Spain" to the disciplines of alchemicalsoul-cleansing. Andreae dubbed the gamut of mystery-mongers (‘gold’makers, self-styled initiates) the "little curiosity brothers" orsimply the curiosi, who obscure, rather than reveal, the simple truth.In such naïve hands, Andreae doubted if his Fama Fraternitatis couldaccomplish the mighty works he had hoped to precipitate.
   Not everything went sour. In spite of youthful disappointment at the‘failure’ of the fratres R.C. to declare themselves, the Czech,Comenius (1592-1671), founder of the concept of universal education,said of Andreae, "he has given us the torch". Comenius’ hope in what hecalled "the Way of Light" would go on to inspire lasting educationaland social reform in England, Sweden and Holland.
   To minds that were already expansive, the Fama Fraternitatis openedthem still further, revealing an unclaimed empire of mind in nature and"mind over matter". In 1960, historian Hugh Trevor-Roper singled outComenius, together with the Pole, Samuel Hartlib – who, arriving inexile, founded a school in Chichester - and the Scot, John Dury as "thereal philosophers, and the only philosophers, of the EnglishRevolution". Their spirit and work - together with the persistent imageof the fratres R.C. - supported the foundation in 1661 of the RoyalSociety, an epoch-marking event in the history of knowledge. ARosicrucian Enlightenment really did occur.

The Tomb of Truth

Andreae had begun the process with a joke. The ‘Fame’ of theFraternity was of course nothing of the kind. Those who seek truth fortruth’s sake are generally invisible to the blind eyes of the world.Andreae, in his Christian Mythologies (1619) hoped to bring the curtaindown on the Rosicrucian furore by turning the joke on its head.
   Andreae envisions a scene where a number of his contemporaries discovera secret vault. In an almost sick parody of the Fama Fraternitatis theexplorers break down a wall. Torches in hand they enter to discover asarcophagus with an inscription: mea tempora - ‘my times’. Inside thesarcophagus lies a cadaver, horribly mutilated, the flesh consumed.After great effort they succeed in uncovering a beautiful bronze plaqueby the cadaver’s rotting head :

I, THE TRUTH
DAUGHTER OF GOD
ASSASSINATED
BY THE DUPLICITY OF SATAN
BY THE CORRUPTION OF
THE WORLD
BY THE FEEBLENESS OF
THE FLESH
BY THE DESPOTISM OF TYRANNY
BY THE INDOLENCE OF
THE PRIESTS
BY THE MALIGNITY OF POLITICS
BY THE SUPERFICIALITY
OF HISTORIANS
BY THE FOLLY OF THE WISE
BY THE STUPIDITY OF THE PEOPLE

I REST HERE
WITHIN THE MUD OF THE LIE
IN ONE HUNDRED YEARS
THE SUN WILL SEE ME AGAIN
GREETINGS O POSTERITY!

This is the tomb of Truth. In a startling imageAndreae has succeeded in condensing his entire outlook and the realsubstance of the Fama as well. It is a sign of the perversity of theworld that while his Rosenkreuz fantasy is remembered, thisdevastatingly truthful work lies rotting in obscure libraries. TheTruth is assassinated...

Back in Britain

Alas, Britannia was unaware of all this. Her greatest Rosicrucianadvocate, Dr Robert Fludd (beginning in 1616), was always an outsider.This position would characterise British Rosicrucianism even up to thestudies of Dame Frances Yates in the 1970’s. She advocated the nowredundant view that the movement had its origins in thealchemico-spiritual adventures of the great John Dee who had travelledto Poland and Bohemia in the 1580’s with a message of angelicallyguided apocalyptic reform. Yates’ hypothesis, together with thatlinking the genesis of the Fama Fraternitatis to the political dreamsof Frederick of the Palatinate has been exploded1. The Rosicrucian‘movement’ was bred in Germany, albeit for export.
   The `Fraternity’ that turned up in England was a conception almosttotally severed from its authentic political and religious context. Inspite – or because - of this, its mystique proved no less fecund,however mutely its trumpet sounded.

The Cornerstones

We have referred to one institution which owes much to the FamaFraternitatis’ inspiration – certainly Comenius thought so whendedicating his Via Lucis to the "illuminati" of the Royal Society in1668 (Ashmole and Sir Robert Moray – both Freemasons and both enthusedby the fratres R.C. - were founder members).
   In an issue of the London Magazine (1824), Thomas de Quincey (the‘Opium Eater’) concluded from his studies of the German historianBühle, that Rosicrucianism gave life to ‘Speculative’ Freemasonry. Henamed Dr Robert Fludd, – with his copious continental contacts - as theprogenitor of a transformation accomplished between 1630 and 1640.
   Limited space forbids entry into the world of 18th and 19th centuryneo-Rosicrucianism. Suffice to say that Andreae and his friends neverwished to see their conception devolve into some kind of esoteric sect,or assembly of éminences grises behind any exclusive society whatever.
   To all that would listen, they said,
   “do the spiritual work, and God will reveal his (natural) secrets to those who seek”.
   The Vault of the Adept is open to all that see it.

1 Yates, Frances A, The Rosicrucian Enlightenment, London, 1972.

Text © Tobias Churton, 2001

Tobias Churton, MA , specialises in Gnostic and relatedtraditions. Author of The Gnostics, 1987 (republished 1997), and TheTrue Story of the Rosicrucians. Creator of The Gnostics for ChannelFour Television.

 

 

 

Omar Daniel ADARO RODRIGUEZ

MM Resp:. Logia "Gral. José de San Martín Nº 441"

Ciudad de San Martín - Partido de San Martín

Provincia de Buenos Aires - República Argentina

 

 

 

 


 


Masones - Washington DC, una ciudad masónica (Inglés)

Escrito por adaro 13-03-2009 en General. Comentarios (0)


FREEMASONRY TODAY

By George! What a Show

Washington DC has a Special Place in the Hearts of Freemasons Worldwide, as Ian Axford Discovered

Washington DC can fairly be described as the world’s foremost "MasonicCity." Its centre was laid out according to a plan drawn up by theFrench Freemason Pierre L’Enfant. Today, the main Government area is filled with buildings that shoulddelight any freemason seeing them for the first time. There is averitable forest of columns and domes with Hellenic temple-style motifsforming part of, or dominating almost every building except the mostmodern. The most impressive monument is undoubtedly the Washington Monument,dedicated to the first President and Founding Father of the country. Itwas conceived by freemasons and, as a giant obelisk, has a stronglymasonic flavour. It has recently been cleaned and renovated and nowgleams brilliantly, especially at night when it is floodlit. Toweringto a height of 555 feet (acknowledging the ‘rule of three’) it was oncethe tallest building in the world. Even before Washington became President there were plans for a monumentto commemorate his deeds during the Revolution as General Washington.Not surprisingly it was envisaged that it would take the form of astatue of the General on horseback. In fact, nothing was done for many years because the equestrian statueseemed inadequate and it was thought that a mausoleum, perhaps in theform of a pyramid, might be more appropriate. Eventually a tomb wasprovided in the crypt of the National Capitol building, but it remainedempty. Washington had requested that he should be buried in the grounds of hisestate at Mount Vernon and it was difficult to overrule his wishes. Ascompensation, a heroic statue of Washington as Zeus was placed in theCapitol. However, a half-naked Founder of the Nation dressed in a toga,sandals and with a crown of laurels did not find much favour, and itwas eventually removed to the Museum of American History. Interest in commemorating Washington’s great contributions waned until,in 1833, it was decided that a Washington National Monument Societyshould be formed to decide on a suitable form for a monument and toraise funds to build it. In 1848, a site was found, a design approved and the cornerstone waslaid on Independence Day in a masonic ceremony attended by PresidentPolk and other dignitaries. In 1852 the Monument had reached a height of 126 feet. But buildingstopped, first for lack of funds, then as a result of interference bythe "Know Nothings" (an anti-Catholic political group which objected tothe inclusion of a stone donated by Pope Pius IX), and finally becauseof the Civil War. At this point Congress became discouraged and took up its originalconcept of an equestrian statue: this was completed and dedicated in1860. It now stands almost unnoticed in Washington Circle, just sevenblocks from the White House.The Monument remained in a partly finished state until constructionbegan again in 1880, with a second cornerstone being laid at the150-feet level by President Hayes. It was completed in December 1884,101 years after the Congress had declared its intent to build aMonument, and 51 years after the Monument Society was formed. TheMonument was dedicated on Washington’s 153rd birthday in 1885 andopened to the public three years later.It is beautifully proportioned, exactly matching its Egyptianforebears, and is quite plain, apart from a slight discolouration,ending about 150 feet above the ground, which can be invoked to impressthe gullible as marking the height of the Great Flood. There is a lift which takes visitors to an observation room at the500-feet level. Along the staircase, the use of which is restricted tothose going down, there are 194 memorial stones contributed by numerousmasonic and other lodges as well as by States, counties, cities andother organisations from around the country. A substitute for themissing ‘Pope’s stone’ and the last State memorial, a valuable piece ofjade from Alaska, was installed in 1982.However, the masons were not satisfied. In 1922 theAlexandria-Washington Lodge No. 22 of Alexandria, Virginia, resolved tobuild a National Masonic Memorial to "George Washington, Patriot,Farmer, Surveyor, General of the Continental Armies, Founding Father,First President and Freemason", in the form of a masonic temple, whichwould also provide facilities for the lodge. The Memorial was designedafter the lighthouse that stood in the harbour of Alexandria, Egypt,one of the seven wonders of the ancient world. Ground was broken onShuter’s Hill, overlooking Alexandria, in July 1922 and the cornerstone laid in October 1923 in the presence of President Coolidge.Working continuously and with a steady source of funds, the buildingwas completed in 1931, although the interior was not finished at thistime. It was dedicated in 1932, 200 years after Washington’s birth, inthe presence of President Hoover. The total cost was well in excess of$3 million. The Memorial in Alexandria is perhaps less elegant than thesimply-conceived Monument six miles distant in Washington DC, but it ismuch more interesting to visit. It is 333 feet high (taking the rule ofthree as far as possible) with a Memorial Hall at the entrance level,above which are seven levels housed in the tower which is built inthree sections, with Ionic, Doric and Corinthian architecture.
The Memorial Hall is grandiose: a 17-feet high bronze statue ofWashington stands at the far end, lit from behind and unveiled in thepresence of President Truman in 1950. On either side there are fourhuge Corinthian columns. Behind them galleries with two enormous (46 x18 feet) murals depict Washington laying the cornerstone of theNational Capitol in 1793 (a masonic ceremony), and Washington andbrethren at a St. John’s Day Observance in Philadelphia, 28 December1778. To the left of the entrance at basement level is a replica of theAlexandria-Washington No.22 lodge room with portraits and memorabiliaof Washington and his friends.The seven floors above the Memorial Hall contain rooms devoted tovarious masonic bodies including the Royal Arch, the Shrine Hospitals,the Cryptic degrees, the Knights Templar Chapel, the Grotto, the TallCedars of Lebanon (surrounded by an observation deck) and a MemorialMuseum sponsored by the Scottish Rite. Each of these is of a different architecture and all are filled withinteresting objects and murals, usually with an audio commentarysupplementing the introduction given by a guide. They are a delight tovisit for non-masons as well as masons. The Assembly Hall in the basement contains the downward continuation ofthe massive columns found in the Memorial Hall. There are dioramasdepicting events in the life of George Washington, the world’s largestPersian carpet and an animatronic George Washington that stands up,welcomes visitors with a pretty speech and sits down again. There are two lodge rooms, one for the Alexandria-Washington Lodge(Scottish Rite) and the North Lodge Room used by the York Rite bodies,Symbolic Lodges, Tall Cedars, Amaranth, Eastern Star, Job’s Daughtersand other organisations.The large room devoted to the Shrine of North America is particularlyinteresting. The Shriners, who must be Knight’s Templar (York Rite) or32° Scottish Rite masons, support 22 Hospitals for Children, givingemphasis to the treatment of burns and spinal cord injuries. The room also contains a fez collection, representing each of the 191Temples and Chapters in the country, and portraits of somedistinguished members of the Shrine. These include Presidents Harding,Franklin Roosevelt, Truman and Ford, the last four Presidents ofMexico, former Prime Minister John Diefenbaker of Canada and the lastKing of Hawaii.I do not want to give the impression that the Memorial is a kind ofmasonic Disneyland. It is not, although it is fun to visit as well asbeing impressive and instructive. It is easily reached by metro fromdowntown Washington, passing through stations with such evocative namesas Foggy Bottom, Arlington Cemetery, Pentagon, Crystal City and RonaldReagan National Airport to King Street. Alexandria itself is a charmingtown, full of 18th century Georgian buildings. A visit to the Memorialand to the town constitutes a very pleasant day’s outing for anytourist. There is more to see in the area, including Washington’s home at MountVernon, about five miles south of Alexandria, and further south, anumber of Civil War sites. However, for the masonic tourist, the Houseof the Temple at 1733 Sixteenth Street in Washington should not bemissed. To give its full name, it is the Headquarters of the Supreme Council,33° (the Mother Council of the World), of the Ancient and AcceptedScottish Rite of Freemasonry, Southern Jurisdiction, USA. The building takes the form of a massive plinth surmounted by an IonicTemple with elements based on the Temples of Athena, Apollo andHercules. The plinth contains space for banqueting facilities. Animpressive atrium and the Supreme Council Chamber are located on theground floor, and the awe-inspiring Temple Chamber is on the upperfloor beneath the dome. There are offices for each of the 33 active members of the SupremeCouncil. George Washington makes his presence felt in the form of abronze bust, which stands in the garden.The overall impression given by the Temple, built between 1911 and1916, is one of ‘sumptuousness’, ‘overwhelming simplicity’ and‘powerful dignity’. It was the first major public commission of thearchitect, John Russell Pope. This brought him an outstandinginternational reputation and commissions for a series of importantpublic buildings, including the Modern Sculpture wing of the TateGallery, the Elgin Marble wing of the British Museum, the NationalGallery of Art in Washington and the Jefferson Memorial. Given that the Supreme Council meets only biennially, thisextraordinary building might seem unnecessarily ostentatious. However,it has another purpose: it is a statement about the great influencethat freemasonry has had in the USA, especially at the time it wasbuilt. That influence has undoubtedly declined, as is evidenced by the factthat since Truman no freemason has been elected President (PresidentFord being the unelected successor of President Nixon). Indeed, thingshave reached the state where Presidents Johnson and Reagan, who weremade Honorary Entered Apprentices, were not inspired to rise anyfurther in the Craft. Nevertheless, the Temple of the Supreme Council is something to beenjoyed by masons and non-masons alike. Visitors are provided with aguide, quite typically, as in my case, a retired, courtly gentlemanwith a slight Virginian accent and an 8° Freemason. My guide showed mearound the building, describing its peculiarly masonic features,especially the columns that seemed to be his special interest. He showed me the Temple Library, Archives and various Museums, theAlbert Pike Room, the Robert Burns Library (‘the Poet Laureate ofFreemasonry"), the Kleinknecht Collection of Porcelains from around theworld, the Burl Ives Collection and the J. Edgar Hoover Law EnforcementRoom. Freemasonry in America had its roots in Military (Irish and Scottish)lodges as well as in non-military Antient and Modern lodges. In theearly 18th century, freemasonry had a distinctly Whiggish character.But Grand Lodge, being ambitious for control, began to try to attractfirst the nobility, with the Duke of Montagu becoming the 4th GrandMaster in 1721, and eventually royalty, with the King’s brother, theDuke of Cumberland, becoming Grand Master in 1782. George III does not seem to have been a freemason, but he wassurrounded by them in the form of his father, brothers and sons. Thisresulted in Grand Lodge becoming ‘Torified’ and not at all agreeable toAmerican tastes. When the Revolution was over, large numbers of Toriesleft for Canada and England. This had the effect of suppressing any interest in ‘Modern’ Grand LodgeFreemasonry. The field was left to the York Rite and the Scottish Rite(introduced from France via Bordeaux and the West Indies), so that‘Antient’ freemasonry finally triumphed in the USA. These various masonic sites are an integral part of Washington’s City, although non-masons usually pay no attention to them.Even scholarly biographies of Washington rarely note that he was afreemason, and then only casually, as if he had been indulging in someinsignificant hobby.

 

 

 

 

Omar Daniel ADARO RODRIGUEZ

MM Resp:. Logia "Gral. José de San Martín Nº 441"

Ciudad de San Martín - Partido de San Martín

Provincia de Buenos Aires - República Argentina

 

 

 

 

 

Masones - Etica y religión en Masonería (Inglés)

Escrito por adaro 13-03-2009 en General. Comentarios (0)


FREEMASONRY TODAY

Ethics and Religion in Freemasonry

The relationship between religion and Freemasonry is examined by Giuliano di Bernardo

A generally accepted, traditional definition of Freemasonry says it isa peculiar system of morality, veiled in allegory and illustrated bysymbols (Emulation Ritual, Lewis Masonic, 1991, pp. 107-108). Translated into philosophical terms the definition takes the followingmeaning: Freemasonry is a conception of man demanding the pursuit ofethical goals oriented by transcendence in conformity with initiatemodalities. Freemasonry is not an all-inclusive philosophical conception. Indeed itdoes not claim to answer the questions concerning all the fields inwhich philosophy is traditionally interested. On the contrary,Freemasonry provides a definite practical philosophy concerning man,his nature and his goals. In outlining its own image of man, Freemasonry has on purpose given upinvestigating all his possible aspects, thus limiting itself to takinginto account only those related to his ethical perfectioning. This does not mean that the other aspects have no value for Masonicthought, but only that they prove minor and subordinate to the ethicalones. Just because Freemasonry lays great emphasis on the study of aparticular aspect of man, its anthropology is by definition partial. It is just here that one can understand an important difference incomparison with religion: while every anthropology coming from areligion is, by nature, total, Masonic anthropology is partial.To restrict Masonic anthropology to the mere ethical perfectioning maygive rise to the suspicion that Masonic thought is characterised by amaterialistic immanentism. It is to avoid such a misunderstanding that we introduce the idea oftranscendence, symbolised in Freemasonry by the Great Architect of theUniverse (GATU), who has the exact function of ensuring theobjectiveness of the shared values, from where the idea of Freemasons’ethical perfectioning itself comes. The idea of the GATU is an essential point of reference in Masonicthought. It is at the root of the Masonic conception of ethic. Atreatment of the ethical issue cannot therefore set aside from anin-depth analysis of the nature of the GATU, and of the variousinterpretations of it that have been given in the course of the historyof Freemasonry. On a point of such remarkable importance there were misunderstandingsgiving rise to considerable difficulties in the understanding of thereal relationship between Freemasonry and religion.To definitively clarify such a relationship it is necessary toascertain whether Freemasonry is a religion or not. Freemasonry is areligion if, and only if, there is a Masonic God, distinct from all theother expressions of divinity. In any other case, Freemasonry is not areligion.Assuming such definition, let us consider the various meanings of GATU in the history of Freemasonry.

Operative Freemasonry: The God of Operative Freemasons is the ChristianGod ontologically interpreted. Freemasonry therefore has a religionthat is just Christian religion. Since it identifies itself withChristian religion, because of the definition given, it is not areligion. Freemasonry has a religion, but is not a religion. 


Speculative Freemasonry (The origins): The situation changes radicallywhen we enter the phase of speculative Freemasonry, coinciding with itsmodern origins. The admission to Lodges of the accepted, that is of menwho were not devoted to the material building of cathedrals, expressesthe need of universalising Freemasonry. 


Such a need is acknowledged by Anderson’s Constitutions, which start aprocess of dechristianisation of Freemasonry. Yet this process has notto be interpreted as the renouncement of religion, but rather as theopening to all religions. For that reason Freemasonry is open not onlyto Christians, but also to men professing different religious faiths. In Anderson’s first Charge, concerning God and Religion, is indeedincluded the expression: “... .yet ‘tis now thought more expedient onlyto oblige them (the Freemasons) to that Religion in which all Menagree, leaving their particular Opinions to themselves.” In the philosophical field this need expresses itself in deism. Deismin its different acceptations essentially indicates a natural religionbased on reason, and resulting from the intersection of all religions.The God deriving from it, is the deistic God.Anderson, therefore, replaces Christian religion, expression of aparticular faith, with the universal religion of deism. He does nothingbut replacing a religion with another religion, both of which have tobe interpreted in their ontological meaning. Since the deistic God does not identify himself with a religion,according to the above definition he is the Masonic God. ThusFreemasonry not only has a religion, but it is a religion itself. 

Speculative Freemasonry (the present situation): The dechristianisationof Freemasonry, started with Anderson's Constitutions, is interpretedby many Freemasons as renouncement of religiousness.

To avoid controversies on this point, the Grand Lodge of London, whoissued the Constitutions, forbids any religious and politicaldiscussion in the Lodge, after the example of the Royal Society.Yet it did not succeed in avoiding a deep split in English Freemasonry.As a consequence, the Antients opposed the Moderns, and beside theGrand Lodge of London arose the Grand Lodge of England. At the root ofsuch a split there is also deism, that is a way of conceiving religion,which is not shared by everybody. In 1813, the Act of Union between the two Grand Lodges which givesorigin to the United Grand Lodge of the Antient, Free and AcceptedMasons of England, among other things marks the overcoming of deism andthe beginning leading to the statement that Freemasonry is not areligion. This is clearly stated in the Declaration on Freemasonry and Religion,issued by the United Grand Lodge of England in 1985, which will be theobject of the following analyses. As such Declaration is essential tounderstand the relationship between Freemasonry and Religion, I reportit integrally.

Basic statement: Freemasonry is not a Religion, nor is it a substitutefor religion. It demands of its members a belief in a Supreme Being,but provides no system of faith of its own. Freemasonry is open to menof all religious faiths. The discussion of religion is forbidden

The Supreme Being: The names used for the Supreme Being enable men ofdifferent faiths to join in prayer (to God as each sees Him) withoutthe terms of the prayer causing dissension among them. There is noseparate Masonic God - a Freemason’s God remains the God of thereligion he professes.
Freemasons meet in common respect for the Supreme Being as He remainsSupreme in their individual religions, and it is no part of Freemasonryto attempt to join religions together. There is, therefore, nocomposite Masonic God.
 Volume of the Sacred Law: The Bible, referred to by Freemasons as theVolume of the Sacred Law (VSL), is always open at every Masonicmeeting.
 The Obligations of Freemasonry: The obligations taken by Freemasons aresworn on or involve the VSL, or the book held sacred by thoseconcerned. They are undertakings to help keep secret a Freemason’smeans of recognition, and to follow the principles of Freemasonry.The physical penalties, which are purely symbolic, do not form part ofan Obligation. The commitment to follow the principles of Freemasonryis, however, deep.
Freemasonry compared with religion: Freemasonry lacks the basicelements of religion: it has no theological doctrine, and by forbiddingreligious discussion at its meetings, will not allow a Masonictheological doctrine to develop.It offers no sacraments, and does not claim to lead to salvation byworks, by secret knowledge or by any other means. The secrets ofFreemasonry are concerned with modes of recognition and not withsalvation.
Freemasonry supports religion: Freemasonry is far from indifferent toreligion. Without interfering in religious practice, it expects eachmember to follow his own faith, and to place above all other duties,his duty to God by whatever name He is known. Its moral teachings areacceptable to all religions. Freemasonry is thus a supporter ofreligion.The above Declaration was issued by the United Grand Lodge of England,the most authoritative source in the formation of Masonic thought. Itgains therefore the importance of a constitution that is binding forall the Grand Lodges recognised by the United Grand Lodge of England.Just for this reason it has to be thoroughly examined.Already in the Basic Statement it is clearly stated that Freemasonry isnot a religion, thus putting an end to all the misinterpretationswhich, up to then, had characterised the relationship betweenFreemasonry and religion. Indeed, the following sentences are includedin it:

  • “Freemasonry is not a religion, nor it is a substitute for religion.”
  • “...It is no part of Freemasonry to attempt to join religions together. There is therefore no composite Masonic God.”
  • “Freemasons meet in common respect for the Supreme Being.”
These simple and basic statements are already enough to definitelyclarify that Freemasonry is not a religion, but also it has nothing todo with deism. Moreover, it must not be confused with anything elsethat can serve as a substitute for religion.If Freemasonry is not a religion, then what is it? The statement thatFreemasonry is not a religion has given rise to the misunderstanding ofregarding it as a conception of man, based on atheist materialism, withthe consequence of renouncing the transcendence of the Supreme Being. The statement that Freemasonry is not a religion does not necessarilyimply that it has to be the denial of transcendence and, consequently,of the GATU. The essentiality of transcendence is reasserted when theDeclaration of the United Grand Lodge of England specifies thatFreemasonry “...demands of its members a belief in a Supreme Being butprovides no system of faith of its own.” The notion of a “SupremeBeing” is therefore a notion that does not represent either the God ofa particular religion or the composite God originating from theintersection of all religions (the deistic God) or the God of anysubstitute for religion.

Giuliano di Bernardo is Grand Master of the Regular Grand Lodge of Italy
 
 
 

Omar Daniel ADARO RODRIGUEZ

MM Resp:. Logia "Gral. José de San Martín Nº 441"

Ciudad de San Martín - Partido de San Martín

Provincia de Buenos Aires - República Argentina