Adaro Omar Daniel

Mormones - José Smith y la Kabalah, la conexión oculta

 

 

 

 

 

 


José Smith y la Cabalá:
La conexión oculta

 

 

 Lance S. Owens



 Este trabajo fue publicado originalmente en Diálogo: Un Diario de Mormón Pensamiento, vol. 27, No. 3, Fall 1994, pp. 27, No. 3, otoño de 1994, págs. 117-194. 117-194.
El documento recibido considerable aviso, y en 1995 la Asociación de Historia reconocidos Mormón Joseph Smith y la Cabalá: La conexión oculta con su premio anual al mejor artículo de Mormón estudios.
Está en curso una demanda de este papel, pero, por desgracia Diálogo vendido la totalidad de su impresión de la Caída, de 1994 dentro de unas semanas. La mayoría de bibliotecas académicas Diálogo tendrá en su colección de revistas para los que buscan una copia impresa. 

Para un acceso más fácil, en el documento se presenta en tres partes: Parte 1, que comienza a continuación, incluye las páginas 117 a 134; Parte 2 incluye las páginas 134 a 166; y la Parte 3 incluye las páginas 166 a 194.
El trabajo utiliza una amplia toma nota de que están vinculados en el texto.
Las ilustraciones tienen todos los títulos, el acceso por el título de "clic" en la figura.
Los interesados en este tema también puede disfrutar de la mucho másbreve artículo introductorio de la misma autora, publicado en la Gnosis: A Journal of Western Interior Tradiciones, primavera de 1995 y posteriormente repubilised en el libro El Profeta Puzzle: Ensayos de Interpretación de José Smith (editado por Bryan Waterman, Firma Libros, 1999): José Smith: America's Hermética Profeta.


En 1973 RLDS historiador Paul M. EDWARDS identificado una deficiencia de los estudios históricos de Mormón: "No hemos permitido", dice Edwards, habla de Mormón historiadores, "el carácter revolucionario del movimiento de los que han surgido para que nosotros los revolucionarios". He continued: Él continuó:

 

La única cosa sobre la que todos estamos de acuerdo en que podríamos relativa Joseph Smith es que él no era el tipo habitual de la persona.

 

No enfoque a la propia vida - o de su compromiso religioso - en una forma habitual.

 

Sin embargo, el carácter de nuestra investigación histórica de José Smith y su tiempo ha sido sobre todo tradicional, poco imaginativo, y carente de cualquier esfuerzo por encontrar o crear una metodología epistemológica revolucionaria suficiente para hacer frente a la paradoja de nuestro movimiento.

 

La ironía de nuestra posición es que muchos de nuestros métodos y de la interpretación se han vuelto tan tradicional que sólo pueden reforzarlos temores de ayer en lugar de alimentar las semillas de los sueños de la mañana. 1

 

Más de dos décadas han pasado desde que esas palabras fueron encerrados, años marcados por una auténtica explosión de los estudios de Mormón, y, sin embargo, Edward 'sreto " para encontrar o crear una metodología epistemológicarevolucionaria suficiente para hacer frente a la paradoja" de JoséSmith sigue siendo en gran medida sin una orden de .

 

Las revoluciones son procesos dolorosos, tanto en la medida destructiva y creativa.

 

Revisioning la imaginaciónde José Smith de la "inusual" para la vida y la religión, exige uncuidado - aunque quizás todavía difícil y destructiva - hewingdistancia de cien años de una incrustación vilifications y gruesolayerings iconográfico de los pigmentos, en última instancia, lasmáscaras de falsa a su animado emitidos.

 

Smith eschewed orthodoxy, and so eventually must his historians. Smith evitar la ortodoxia, por lo que eventualmente debe su historiadores. Tothat end, there is considerable value in turning full attention to therevolutionary view of Joseph Smith provided by Harold Bloom in hiscritique of The American Religion . Con ese fin, existeun considerable valor en la conversión de toda la atención a la vistarevolucionario de José Smith por Harold Bloom en su crítica de la religión de América.

Broadlyinformed as a critic of the creative imagination and its Kabbalistic,Gnostic undertones in Western culture--and perhaps one of the mostprominent literary figures in America--Bloom has intuitively recognizedwithin Joseph Smith a familiar spirit, a genius wed in nature to boththe millennia-old visions of Gnosticism in its many guises, and theimaginative flux of poesy. Ampliamente informado como un críticode la imaginación creadora y sus Kabbalistic, Gnóstico Undertones en lacultura occidental - y tal vez una de las más prominentes figurasliterarias en América - Bloom ha reconocido de manera intuitiva de JoséSmith en un espíritu familiar, un genio en la naturaleza a Miércolesdos milenios de antigüedad, las visiones de gnosticismo en susmúltiples formas, y el flujo de imaginativa poesía. Individualsless informed in the history and nature of Kabbalism--or of Hermetic,Alchemical and Rosicrucian mysticism, traditions influenced by acreative interaction with Kabbalah--may have difficulty apprehendingthe basis of his insight. Individuos menos informados de lahistoria y la naturaleza de Kabbalism - o de Hermética, alquímicos yrosacruces misticismo, las tradiciones influida por una interaccióncreativa con la Cabalá - pueden tener dificultades para la detención dela base de su visión. Indisputably,the aegis of "orthodox" Mormon historiography is violently breached byBloom's intuition linking the prophet's visionary bent with the occultaspirations of Jewish Kabbalah, the great mystical and prophetictradition of Israel. Indiscutiblemente, la égida de "ortodoxo"historiografía Mormón es violentamente violada por la intuición deBloom vincular el profeta visionario del dobladas con la ocultaaspiraciones de Cábala judía, la gran mística y la tradición proféticade Israel.

Bloomis, of course, not a historian but a critic and interpreter of creativevisions, and his reading of Smith depends perhaps less on historicaldetail than on his intuition for the poetic imagination. Bloomes, por supuesto, no un historiador, sino un crítico e intérprete delas visiones creativas, y su lectura depende de Smith tal vez menos endetalles históricos que en su intuición para la imaginación poética. The affinity of Smith for these traditions is, nonetheless, evident to an educated eye. La afinidad de Smith por estas tradiciones es, sin embargo, evidentes para un ojo educado.

Whatis clear is that Smith and his apostles restated what Moshe Idel, ourgreat living scholar of Kabbalah, persuades me was the archaic ororiginal Jewish religion. Lo que está claro es que Smith y susapóstoles lo que volvió a Moshe IDEL, nuestro gran erudito de la Cabalávida, se me persuade a la arcaica u original religión judía. . . . . . . Myobservation certainly does find enormous validity in Smith'simaginative recapture of crucial elements, elements evaded by normativeJudaism and by the Church after it. Mi observación no duda enencontrar enorme validez Smith imaginativas recaptura de elementosesenciales, los elementos normativos eludido por el judaísmo y por laIglesia después de él. TheGod of Joseph Smith is a daring revival of the God of some of theKabbalists and Gnostics, prophetic sages who, like Smith himself,asserted that they had returned to the true religion. El Dios deJosé Smith es un renacimiento de la osadía de Dios algunos de losgnósticos y Kabbalists, profética sabios que, como el propio Smith,afirmó que habían regresado a la verdadera religión. . . . . . . Eitherthere was a more direct Kabbalistic influence upon Smith than we know,or, far more likely, his genius reinvented Kabbalah in the effortnecessary to restore archaic Judaism. 2O bien existe una más directa influencia sobre Smith Kabbalistic quesabemos, o, mucho más probable, su genio reinventado Cabalá en elesfuerzo necesario para restablecer el judaísmo arcaico. 2

WhileI would not diminish the inventive genius of Joseph Smith, carefulreevaluation of historical data suggests there is both a poetic and an unsuspected factual substance to Bloom's thesis.Aunque yo no disminuir el genio inventivo de Joseph Smith, unacuidadosa reevaluación de los datos históricos sugiere que hay unapoética y una insospechada hechos a fondo la tesis de Bloom. Thoughyet little understood, from Joseph's adolescent years forward he hadrepeated, sometime intimate and arguably influential associations withdistant legacies of Gnosticism conveyed by Kabbalah andHermeticism--traditions intertwined in the Renaissance and nurturedthrough the reformative religious aspirations of three subsequentcenturies. Aunque todavía poco entendido, de José adolescenciahacia adelante que ha repetido, en algún momento íntimo y posiblementedistante influyentes asociaciones con los legados de Gnosticismotransmitido por Cábala y Hermetismo - tradiciones entrelazadas en elRenacimiento y alimentado a través de la aspiraciones de reformareligiosa de tres siglos posteriores. Thoughany sympathy Joseph held for old heresy was perhaps intrinsic to hisnature rather than bred by association, the associations didAunque ninguna simpatía por Joseph celebrada antigua herejía era quizáa su naturaleza intrínseca, más que criados por asociación, lasasociaciones que exist. And they hold a rich context of meanings. existen. Y que poseen un rico contexto de significados. Ofcourse, the relative import of these interactions in Joseph Smith'shistory will remain problematic for historians; efforts to revision theProphet in their light--or to reevaluate our methodology ofunderstanding his history--may evoke a violently response fromtraditionalists. Por supuesto, la relación de importación deestas interacciones en la historia de José Smith seguirá siendoproblemático para los historiadores, los esfuerzos para revisar elProfeta en su luz - o para reevaluar nuestra metodología de lacomprensión de su historia - puede provocar una violenta respuesta delos tradicionalistas. Nonetheless,these is substantial documentary evidence, material unexplored by Bloomor Mormon historians generally, supporting a much more directKabbalistic and Hermetic influences upon Smith and his doctrine of Godthan has previously been considered possible . Noobstante, es importante la prueba documental, material inexplorado porBloom o Mormón historiadores en general, un apoyo mucho más directo yKabbalistic Hermética influencias a Smith y su doctrina de Dios que hasido considerado posible.

Throughhis associations with ceremonial magic as a young treasure seer, Smithcontacted symbols and lore taken directly from Kabbalah. Através de sus asociaciones con la magia ceremonial tesoro como un jovenvidente, Smith contacto con los símbolos y tradiciones tomadasdirectamente de la Cabalá. In his prophetic translation of sacred writ, his hermeneutic method was in nature Kabbalistic. Profética en su traducción de la Sagrada escritura, su método hermenéutico en la naturaleza Kabbalistic. With his initiation into Masonry, he entered a tradition born of the Hermetic-Kabbalistic tradition. Con su iniciación en la Masonería, entró en una tradición nacida de la tradición Hermética-Kabbalistic. These associations culminated in Nauvoo, the period of his most important doctrinal and ritual innovations. Estas asociaciones culminaron en Nauvoo, el período de sus más importantes innovaciones doctrinales y rituales. Duringthese last years, he enjoyed friendship with a European Jew well-versedin the standard Kabbalistic works and possibly possessing in Nauvoo anextraordinary collection of Kabbalistic books and manuscripts.Durante estos últimos años, que gozan de la amistad con un Judio bienversados en la norma Kabbalistic obras y, posiblemente, en Nauvooposeer una extraordinaria colección de libros y manuscritos Kabbalistic. By1844 Smith not only was cognizant of Kabbalah, but enlisted theosophicconcepts taken directly from its principal text in his most importantdoctrinal sermon, the "King Follett Discourse." En 1844 Smith nosólo fue consciente de la Cabalá, pero alistó theosophic conceptostomados directamente de su texto principal, en su sermón doctrinal másimportante, el "Rey Follett discurso."

Smith's concepts of God's plurality, his vision of God as anthropos, and his possession by the issue of sacred marriage, all might havebeen cross-fertilized by this intercourse with Kabbalistictheosophy--an occult relationship climaxing in Nauvoo. Smith, los conceptos de Dios de la pluralidad, su visión de Dios como Anthropos,y su posesión por la cuestión de sagrado matrimonio, todos podríanhaber sido fertilizado cruzada por el presente con Kabbalistic Teosofía- una relación oculta culminante en Nauvoo. Thisis a complex thesis; its understanding requires exploration of anoccult religious tradition spanning more that a millennium of Westernhistory, an investigation that begins naturally with Kabbalah.Se trata de un complejo de tesis, y su comprensión requiere unaexploración de la tradición religiosa oculta que abarcan más de unmilenio de la historia occidental, una investigación que comienzanaturalmente con la Cabalá.

La Naturaleza de la Cabalá

The Hebrew word kabbalah means "tradition." La palabra hebrea Kabbalah significa "tradición". Inthe medieval Jewish culture of southern France and northern Spain,however, the term acquired a fuller connotation: it came to identifythe mystical, esoteric tradition of Judaism. En la cultura judíamedieval del sur de Francia y norte de España, sin embargo, el términoadquirió una connotación más amplia: se trata de identificar lamística, la tradición esotérica del judaísmo. Betweenthe thirteenth and seventeenth centuries, this increasingly refinedspiritual heritage was an important force in European and MediterraneanJudaism, competing with and often antagonistic to more rationalisticand Rabbinical trends. Entre los trece y diecisiete siglos, cadavez más refinada de este patrimonio espiritual era una fuerzaimportante en Europa y del Mediterráneo, el judaísmo, y competir conmás frecuencia antagónicos a las tendencias racionalistas y rabinos. By the sixteenth century, Kabbalah had infused not only Judaism, but Renaissance Christian culture as well. En el siglo XVI, la Cabalá no sólo ha infundido el judaísmo, el renacimiento de la cultura cristiana, sino también. Startingfirst with the Florentine court of Lorenzo de Medici at the end of thefifteenth century, Kabbalah became a potent force inseminating theRenaissance world view. Comenzando en primer lugar la corte deFlorencia de Lorenzo de Medici a finales del siglo XV, la Cabalá seconvirtió en una fuerza potente inseminating el Renacimiento visión delmundo. Ultimately this movement engendered during the late Renaissance a separate heterodox tradition of Christian Kabbalah.En última instancia este movimiento han surgido durante el Renacimientotardío un heterodoxo de la tradición cristiana la Cabalá. Fromthis period on, Kabbalah has been a major creative force in Westernreligious and poetic imagination, touching such diverse individuals asJacob Boehme, John Milton, Emanuel Swedenborg, William Blake, andperhaps Joseph Smith. A partir de este período sobre la Cabaláha sido una importante fuerza creativa en el oeste de religiosas y laimaginación poética, tocando tan diversos como las personas de JacobBoehme, John Milton, Emanuel Swedenborg, William Blake, y tal vez deJosé Smith.

Anunderstanding of Kabbalah starts with an understanding of "tradition."Contrary to the word's common connotation, the tradition of Kabbalahwas not a static historical legacy of dogma, but a dynamic phenomenon:the mutable tradition of the Divine mystery as it unfolds itself tohuman cognition. La comprensión de la Cabalá comienza con unacomprensión de la "tradición". Contrariamente a la connotación de lapalabra común, la tradición de la Cabalá no era un legado histórico deldogma, sino un fenómeno dinámico: la tradición mutable misterio de laDivinidad, ya que se desarrolla a sí mismo en la cognición humana. Kabbalahconveyed as part of its tradition a complex theosophic vision of Godbut simultaneously asserted that this image was alive and open tofurther revelation. Cabalá transmitida como parte de sutradición theosophic una compleja visión de Dios pero a la vez afirmóque esta imagen estaba vivo y abierto a la revelación más. Thusthe Kabbalist maintained a creative, visionary interaction with aliving system of symbols and lore, and--most importantly--new propheticvision was intrinsically part of the Kabbalist's understanding of theirheritage. 3Por lo tanto, el Kabbalist mantenido un creativo, visionario de lainteracción con un sistema vivo de los símbolos y tradiciones, y - másimportante - nueva visión profética fue parte intrínseca de laKabbalist la comprensión de su patrimonio. 3

How long and in what form Kabbalah existed before blossoming in twelfth-century Spain is uncertain. ¿Cuánto tiempo y en qué forma la Cabalá florecimiento existía antes del siglo XII en España es incierto. Kabbaliststhemselves made extraordinary claims that require our understandingbefore being discarded: Kabbalah was--said adepts--the tradition of theoriginal knowledge Adam received from God. Kabbalistsextraordinaria reclamaciones hechas a sí mismos que requieren nuestracomprensión antes de ser desechado: la Cabalá es - dijo adeptos - latradición de los conocimientos originales Adán recibió de Dios. Notonly was Kabbalah guardian of this original knowledge, but it preservedthe tradition of prophecy which allowed a return to such primal vision:"Kabbalah advanced what was at once a claim and an hypothesis, namely,that its function was to hand down to its own disciples the secret ofGod's revelation to Adam." 4No sólo fue la Cabalá guardián de este conocimiento inicial, peroconservado la tradición de la profecía que permitió el retorno a esavisión primitiva: "Cabalá avanzadas a la vez lo que era unareivindicación y una hipótesis, a saber, que su función consistía enparte a su propios discípulos el secreto de la revelación de Dios aAdán. "4

In keeping with its own mythic claims, Kabbalah has been accorded fairly early origins in Judaic culture. De acuerdo con sus propias reclamaciones mítico, la Cabalá se ha dado bastante temprana orígenes en la cultura judaica. Somemodern authorities--Moshe Idel is a notable representative--identifyroots of Kabbalah in Jewish mythic motifs predating the Christian eraand suggest that the tradition emanated from archaic aspirations ofJudaism. 5In a more conservative posture the eminent authority Gershom Scholemdates first threads of Kabbalah to the initial centuries of theChristian era. Algunas autoridades moderna - Moshe IDEL es unnotable representante - identificar las raíces judías de la Cabalá enmotivos mítico anterior a la era cristiana y sugieren que la tradiciónarcaica emanado de las aspiraciones del judaísmo. 5En una postura más conservadora de la autoridad eminente GershomScholem fechas primero los hilos de la Cabalá a la inicial siglos de laera cristiana. Withorigins cryptically entwined in Gnostic traditions and Jewish mythscoursing through that early epoch, Kabbalah became in its mature formwhat Scholem describes as the embodiment of a "Jewish gnosticism." 6Críptica entrelazado con orígenes en las tradiciones gnósticas y judíasmitos que corre a través de principios de la época, la Cabalá seconvirtió en su forma madura Scholem lo que describe como laencarnación de un "judío gnosticismo." 6

In recent years, this identification of Kabbalah with Gnosticism has been a source of controversy. 7Noted Swiss psychologist CG Jung commented, "We find in Gnosticism whatwas lacking in the centuries that followed: a belief in the efficacy ofindividual revelation and individual knowledge. This belief was rootedin the proud feeling of man's affinity with the gods." 8While classical Christian Gnosticism vanished from the Western world bythe forth or fifth century, this Gnostic world view was not so easilyextinguished. En los últimos años, esta identificación de la Cabalá con gnosticismo ha sido fuente de controversia. 7Observó psicólogo suizo CG Jung comentó, "Encontramos en Gnosticismo loque se carece de los siglos que siguieron: la creencia en la eficaciade cada uno de los conocimientos individuales y la revelación . Estacreencia se basa en el orgulloso sentimiento de afinidad del hombre conlos dioses. "8Si bien clásica cristiana Gnosticismo desaparecido desde el mundooccidental por el cuarto o quinto siglo, esta visión del mundo Gnósticono se extingue tan fácilmente. Historicity here, however, becomes a vexing problem. Historicidad aquí, sin embargo, se convierte en un problema inquietante. Under what circumstances should anything occurring after the disappearance of classical Gnosticism be called Gnostic? ¿Bajo qué circunstancias debe nada se produjeron después de la desaparición de los clásicos se llama Gnosticismo Gnóstico? Wasthe Gnostic world view transmitted to later ages through historicallydiscernible influences and communications or, instead, was somethingsimilar continually and independently recreated, reborn time after time?Fue la visión del mundo Gnóstico de transmisión posterior a través delas edades históricamente discernibles influencias y de lascomunicaciones o, en cambio, era algo similar e independientecontinuamente recreado, renace una y otra vez? What now are the proper bounds for using the term, "Gnostic"? Lo que ahora son los propios límites para el uso del término "gnóstico"?

Questionslike these animate modern Gnostic and Kabbalistic studies, and thetypes of answers offered often reach beyond history into humanpsychology. Preguntas como estas animar moderna y gnósticaKabbalistic estudios, y los tipos de respuestas que ofrece a menudo vanmás allá de la historia en la psicología humana. Theproper historical definition of Gnosticism has generated wide variancesof opinion during the last several decades, and yet remains a fluidarea. La correcta definición de gnosticismo histórico hagenerado gran diferencias de opinión durante los últimos decenios y,sin embargo, sigue siendo un área de fluidos. Inthe second century, Gnosticism clearly produced an historicallymanifest movement: it had specific myths, rituals, schools, teachers,and enemies. En el segundo siglo, Gnosticismo claramentemanifiesto históricamente producido un movimiento: había específicasmitos, los ritos, las escuelas, los maestros, y los enemigos. Somescholars have felt it most expedient to artfully delimit alldiscussions of Gnosticism with taxonomic dissections rooted exclusivelyin these ancient manifestations and, having so done, declare the oldheresy long dead in its grave. Algunos estudiosos hanconsiderado más conveniente que ingeniosamente a delimitar todos losdebates de Gnosticismo con disecciones taxonómicas exclusivamentearraigada en estas manifestaciones y antiguas, a fin de tener hecho,declarar la antigua herejía de largo muerto en su tumba. Butwhile this kind of a strictly delimiting approach was not uncommonthree decades ago, other and much more insightful thrusts have recentlydeveloped in Gnostic studies. 9 As Dan Merkur summarizes,Pero si bien este tipo de delimitación de un enfoque estrictamente noera poco común hace tres décadas, y otros aspectos mucho másperspicaces han desarrollado recientemente en los estudios gnóstica. 9 Como Dan Merkur resumen,

The Gnostic inventory should not be defined too rigidly. El inventario Gnóstico no debería definirse demasiado rígida. . . . . for it was not fixed and immutable, as scientific and metaphysical categories may be. ya que no se fijo e inmutable, como científicos y metafísicos categorías sean. Gnosis was and is a historical phenomenon that has undergone change over the centuries. Gnosis ha sido y es un fenómeno histórico que ha sufrido cambios a través de los siglos. Adetailed definition for the gnosis of the second century will not fitthe gnosis of the eighteenth, but the process of change can be traced.Una definición detallada de la gnosis del siglo II no cabe la gnosis dela décimo octava, pero el proceso de cambio puede ser rastreado. Gnosticismappears to have made its way from late antiquity to modern times, in amanner and by a route that compares with the transmissions of bothAristotelianism and the practice of science. 10Gnosticismo parece haber hecho su camino desde fines de la antigüedadhasta los tiempos modernos, en la forma y por una ruta que se comparacon las transmisiones de ambos aristotelismo y la práctica de laciencia. 10

Tobe sure, Gnosticism was always at core an independent product ofprimary, creative vision; by definition, devoid of this experientialingredient there was no Gnosis. Para estar seguro, siempreestuvo en gnosticismo un producto básico de la enseñanza primaria,visión creativa, por definición, carece de la experiencia de esteingrediente no se Gnosis. And perhaps it could be argued that whenever this primary Gnostic vision is found, it is in essence new creation. Y tal vez se podría argumentar que, cuando esta visión gnóstica primaria se encuentra, es en esencia la creación de nuevos. Ifsuch a view of Gnosis is granted, the precise part played by historicalindividuals, rituals, myths or texts as conveyors of tradition mustremain problematic. Si ese punto de vista de la Gnosis esconcedida, la precisión del histórico papel desempeñado por laspersonas, los ritos, mitos o textos como los transportadores de latradición debe seguir siendo problemática. Nonetheless,as Merkur suggests, there is substantial evidence to argue that aGnostic world view was transmitted by historically identifiable sourcescoursing from antiquity into more recent times, and that Kabbalah wasone of the principal agents of this transmission. 11No obstante, como sugiere Merkur, hay pruebas sustanciales para afirmarque una visión del mundo gnóstica fue transmitida por fuentesidentificables históricamente corre desde la antigüedad en tiempos másrecientes, y que la Cabalá es uno de los principales agentes de estatransmisión. 11

Inthe thirteenth century, the oral legacy of this Jewish gnosisincreasingly took written form and several Kabbalistic manuscriptsbegan to circulate, first in Spain and southern France and thenthroughout Europe and the Mediterranean. En el siglo XIII, lafase oral del legado de esta gnosis judía tomó cada vez más la formaescrita y varios manuscritos Kabbalistic comenzaron a circular, primeroen España y el sur de Francia y luego en toda Europa y el Mediterráneo. By far the most important text emerging in this period was the Zohar , or "Book of Splendor". Con mucho el más importante texto que salen en este período fue el Zohar, o "Libro del Esplendor". Thismassive work first appeared in Spain just before the year 1300.Internally it presented itself as an ancient work, a lost record of theoccult and mystical oral teachings given by one Simeon ben Yochai, anotable second-century Rabbi, as he wandered about Palestine with hisson and disciples, explaining the hidden mysteries of the Torah.Esta enorme trabajo apareció por primera vez en España justo antes delaño 1300. Internamente se presentaba como un antiguo trabajo, lapérdida de un registro de lo oculto y las enseñanzas místicas oral dadapor un Simeón ben Yochai, un notable rabino del siglo segundo, ya quevagaba sobre Palestina con su hijo y los discípulos, que explica losmisterios ocultos de la Torá. The Zohar'ssignificance in the evolution of Kabbalah cannot be overstated; itplayed a preeminent role in the development of Kabbalistic theosophy,and soon took on both canonical rank and unquestioned sacredauthority--a status it retained for nearly five centuries. El Zohar laimportancia en la evolución de la Cabalá no puede ser exagerada, sinoque desempeñó un papel preeminente en el desarrollo de KabbalisticTeosofía, y pronto adquirió tanto canónico rango y autoridadincuestionable sagrado - es un estado retenido durante casi cincosiglos. Thousands of manuscripts would eventually be added to the corpus of written Kabbalah, but none rivaled the Zohar in dissemination or veneration. Miles de manuscritos a la larga, se añade el conjunto de la Cabalá por escrito, pero ninguno comparable en el Zohar difusión o veneración.

The Zoharwas, however, what a modern student might call a forgery: it was apseudoepigraphic work--a work written in the name of an ancient authorby a contemporary figure. El Zohar es, sin embargo, loque un estudiante moderno podríamos llamar una falsificación: se tratade un pseudoepigraphic trabajo - un trabajo escrito en el nombre de unaantigua por un autor contemporáneo cifra. This was a literary device popular with Kabbalists, as it had been with Gnostic writers in earlier centuries.Se trataba de un dispositivo literarias populares con Kabbalists, talcomo lo había sido con escritores Gnóstico en siglos anteriores. Though probably based on oral tradition, Scholem argues that the majority of the Zohar is the work of a single thirteenth-century Spanish Kabbalist, Moses de Leon. Aunque probablemente sobre la base de la tradición oral, Scholem sostiene que la mayoría de los Zohar es el trabajo de un solo siglo XIII español Kabbalist, Moisés de León. Tounderstand how a pseudoepigraphic work--a "forged book"--could remainat the center of a religious tradition for centuries requiresconsideration of the Kabbalistic experience. Para entender cómoun pseudoepigraphic trabajo - un "libro falsificado" - podríapermanecer en el centro de una tradición religiosa de los siglosrequiere la consideración de la experiencia Kabbalistic.

Kabbalah used the term "tradition" in a radically deconstructed sense. Cabalá utilizado el término "tradición" en un sentido radicalmente deconstructed. The tradition it guarded was not a dogmatic or theosophical legacy, but a pathway to prophetic consciousness. La tradición es vigilado no era un dogmático o Teosófica legado, sino una vía hacia la conciencia profética. Theteachings of Kabbalah were not dogmatic assertions, but maps intendedto lead a dedicated and worthy student to experiential cognition. 12Unlike the rabbinical tradition which placed the prophets in a past ageand closed the canon of revelation, Kabbalah asserted that the onlyvalid interpretation of scripture came when the individual passedbeyond words and returned to the original vision. Las enseñanzasde la Cabalá no se afirmaciones dogmáticas, sino mapas destinados allevar una dedicada y digno a los estudiantes la experiencia cognición.12A diferencia de la tradición rabínica, que coloca a los profetas en elpasado la edad y cerrado el canon de la revelación, la Cabalá aseguróque la única interpretación válida de la escritura se produjo cuando elindividuo pasa más allá de las palabras y volvió a la visión original. Thoughsuch a visionary experience was shared in full measure only by a vitalelite among Kabbalists, it nonetheless was the sustaining heart ofKabbalah. Aunque esa experiencia fue un visionario en la medidacompartida sólo por una élite entre Kabbalists vital, no obstante, fueel centro de mantenimiento de la Cabalá. Inthe inner sanctum of his contemplation the adept Kabbalist found--so heclaimed--no less than the vision granted the ancient prophets; withthem he became one. En el santuario interior de su contemplaciónel adepto Kabbalist encuentra - por lo que alegó - no menos de lavisión de los antiguos profetas concedido; con ellos se convirtió enuno. To speak pseudoepigraphically with their voice was a natural expression of the experience. Pseudoepigraphically a hablar con su voz fue una expresión natural de la experiencia.

Kabbalahthus arose from oral traditions extant in medieval Judaism--andpossibly of even earlier origin--which proclaimed both specialknowledge of the Divine and possession of ecstatic or mystical giftssimilar to those enjoyed by the ancient prophets, gifts which allowedmen (in measures varing with their own natures) to achieve knowledge ofGod or even union with God. 13 In this affirmation, it shared some bond to earlier Gnostic traditions.Cabalá así surgió de las tradiciones orales existentes en el judaísmomedieval - y posiblemente incluso antes de origen - que proclamó tantoconocimiento especial de la Divina y la posesión de éxtasis místicoregalos o similares a las de los antiguos profetas, las donaciones quepermitieron los hombres (en medidas varing con su propia naturaleza)para lograr el conocimiento de Dios, o incluso la unión con Dios. 13 En esta afirmación, que comparte algunas de bonos antes Gnóstico tradiciones. Nowthe majority of Kabbalists were not full-fledged mystics or prophets,and a great deal of Kabbalistic teachings was purely intellectualtheosophic speculation. Ahora la mayoría de los Kabbalists no depleno derecho místicos o profetas, y una gran cantidad de enseñanzasKabbalistic fue puramente intelectual theosophic especulación. Atthe heart of the tradition, there nonetheless was a propheticaspiration, and several Kabbalists left intimate records--materialpreserved in manuscript and often held in restricted circulation--ofvisions, angelic visitations, ecstatic transport, and divineanointings. 14 These individuals saw themselves, and were sometimes seen by others, in the same mold as Israel's ancient prophets.En el corazón de la tradición, no obstante, fue una proféticaaspiración, y varios registros íntimos Kabbalists izquierda - materialconservado en el manuscrito y, a menudo, se celebró en circulaciónrestringida - de las visiones, las visitas angelical, transporteextático y divina anointings 14. Estas personas veían a sí mismos, y son a veces vistos por otros, en el mismo molde como antiguos profetas de Israel. A rationalistic approach to history might judge such phenomena as aberrant, even pathological. Un enfoque racional de la historia puede juzgar fenómenos como aberrante, incluso patológico. Butwithin the scholarly study of Kabbalah, these phenomena are so wellwitnessed and so central to the tradition, that they require acceptanceat very least as empirical psychological realities. Pero en elestudio erudito de la Cabalá, estos fenómenos son tan bien y tancentral fue testigo de la tradición, que requieren la aceptación por lomenos como la realidad empírica psicológica.

Kabbalistic experience engendered several perceptions about the Divine, many of which departured from the orthodox view.Experiencia Kabbalistic dado lugar a varias percepciones acerca de laDivinidad, muchos de los cuales departured de la visión ortodoxa. The most central tenet of Israel's faith had been the proclamation that "our God is One." La mayoría de los principios centrales de la fe de Israel ha sido la proclamación de que "nuestro Dios es Uno". But Kabbalah asserted that while God exists in highest form as a totally ineffable unity--called by Kabbalah Ein Sof, the infinite--this unknowable singularity had necessarily emanated into a great number of Divine forms: a plurality of Gods.Pero la Cabalá afirmó que, si bien existe en Dios como una forma máselevada totalmente inefable unidad - convocada por la Cabalá de Ein Sof,lo infinito - incognoscible esta singularidad ha emanado necesariamenteen un gran número de formas de la Divina: una pluralidad de dioses. These the Kabbalist called Sefiroth, the vessels or faces of God. Estos Kabbalist el llamado Sefiroth, los buques o las caras de Dios. (See Figures 1 and 2.) The manner by which God descended from incomprehensible unity intoplurality was a mystery to which Kabbalists devoted a great deal ofmeditation and speculation. (Ver figuras 1 y 2.)La manera por la que desciende de Dios incomprensible unidad en lapluralidad es un misterio para que Kabbalists dedicado gran parte de lameditación y la especulación. Obviously,this multifaceted God image admits to accusations of beingpolytheistic, a charge which was vehemently, if never entirelysuccessfully, rebutted by the Kabbalists. 15Obviamente, este multifacético admite imagen de Dios a las acusacionesde ser politeísta, un cargo que fue vehementemente, si no del todocorrectamente, refutada por la Kabbalists 15.

Notonly was the Divine plural in Kabbalistic theosophy, but in its firstsubtle emanation from unknowable unity God had taken on a dual form asMale and Female; a supernal Father and Mother, Hokhmah and Binah , were God's first emanated forms.No sólo la Divina Kabbalistic Teosofía en plural, pero en su primersutil emanación de Dios incognoscible unidad había tomado en una dobleforma como hombres y mujeres, con una suprema Padre y Madre, Hokhmah y Binah, Dios se la primera emanado formas. Kabbalists used frankly sexual metaphors to explain how the creative intercourse of Hokhmah and Binah generated further creation. Kabbalists francamente sexuales utiliza metáforas para explicar cómo la relación creativa de Hokhmah y Binah generado aún más su creación. Indeed, sexual motifs and imagery permeate Kabbalistic theosophy, and the Divine mystery of sexual conjunction--a hierosgamos or sacred wedding--captured Kabbalistic imagination. De hecho, los motivos y las imágenes sexuales impregnan Kabbalistic Teosofía, y el misterio de la divina relación sexual - HierosGamos una boda o sagrados - Kabbalistic capturado la imaginación. Maritalsexual intercourse became for the Kabbalist the highest mystery ofhuman action mirroring the Divine: an ecstatic sacramental evocation ofcreative union, an image of God's masculine and feminine dualitybrought again to unity. Civil se convirtió en el acto sexualpara la Kabbalist el mayor misterio de la acción humana refleja laDivina: una evocación extático sacramental de la unión creativa, unaimagen de Dios de la dualidad masculina y femenina trajo de nuevo a launidad. Ofinterest to Mormonism, among several groups of seventeenth- andeighteenth-century Kabbalists, polygamous and variant sexualrelationships sometimes served as social expressions of these sacralmysteries. 16De interés para el Mormonismo, entre varios grupos de XVII y sigloXVIII Kabbalists, variante de la poligamia y las relaciones sexuales aveces sirve como expresiones sociales de estos sagrados misterios. 16

Thecomplex Divine image composed of the multiple vessels of Divinemanifestation was also visualized by Kabbalah as having a unitary,anthropomorphic form. La imagen de la Divina complejo compuestopor los buques de la Divina múltiples manifestaciones también sevisualizan por la Cabalá como un Estado unitario, forma antropomórfica. God was, by one Kabbalistic recension, Adam Kadmon: the first primordial or archetypal Man. Dios era, por un Kabbalistic recension, Adam Kadmon: el primer hombre primordial o arquetípico. Manshared with God both an intrinsic, uncreated divine spark and acomplex, organic form. This strange equation of Adam as God wassupported by a Kabbalistic cipher: the numerical value in Hebrew of thenames Adam and Jehovah (the Tetragrammaton, Yod he vav he ) was both 45.El hombre comparte con Dios tanto una intrínseca, increada divinachispa y un complejo, la forma orgánica. Esta extraña ecuación de Adáncomo Dios fue apoyada por un sistema de cifrado Kabbalistic: el valornumérico en hebreo los nombres de Adán y Jehová (el Tetragrammaton, Yod que VAV él) es a la vez 45. Thus in Kabbalistic exegesis Jehovah equaled Adam: Adam was God. 17With this affirmation went the assertion that all humankind in highestrealization was like God: the two realities shadowed each other. Así, en la exégesis Kabbalistic Jehová igualado Adam: Adam era Dios. 17Con esta afirmación fue la afirmación de que toda la humanidad en larealización más alta era como Dios: las dos realidades sombra unos aotros.

The Kabbalist saw himself intimately involved in a story told by God--he heard the divine voice and followed. El Kabbalist se veía íntimamente implicada en una historia contada por Dios - oyó la voz divina y seguido. He saw that in the redemption and knowledge of creation, God depended on man, just as man turned his eye to God.Vio que en la redención y el conocimiento de la creación, el hombredepende de Dios, al igual que el hombre dirigió su mirada a Dios. History came from two realms: man's burden was to wed this mysterious dual story in his own flesh. Historia de dos reinos vino: el hombre de la carga fue a casarse con este misterioso doble historia en su propia carne.

El Renacimiento y  Cabalá Cristiana

Kabbalahwas a growing force in Judaism throughout the late medieval period andby the beginning of the Renaissance had gained general acceptance asthe true Jewish theology, a standing it maintained (particularly in theChristian view) into the eighteenth century. 18Only in the last several decades of the twentieth century, however,have historians begun to recognize the importance of Kabbalah in boththe history of religion and in the specific framework of Renaissancethought. La Cabalá es una fuerza creciente en el judaísmo a lolargo del período medieval tardío y el comienzo del Renacimiento habíaganado la aceptación general como la verdadera teología judía, mantieneuna permanente (en particular en la visión cristiana) en el sigloXVIII. 18Solamente en la última varias décadas del siglo XX, sin embargo, loshistoriadores han empezado a reconocer la importancia de la Cabalá enla historia de la religión y en el marco específico de pensamientorenacentista. FrancesYates, one of this century's preeminent historians of the period,emphasized "the tremendous ramifications of this subject, how little ithas been explored, and how fundamental it is for any deep understandingof the Renaissance." Frances Yates, uno de este siglopreeminente los historiadores de la época, destacó "la enormeramificaciones de este tema, lo poco que se ha explorado, y cómo esfundamental para cualquier comprensión profunda del Renacimiento". She continued, Continuó,

Cabala reaches up into religious spheres and cannot be avoided in approaches to the history of religion. Cábala alcanza en las esferas religiosas y no puede evitarse en los enfoques para la historia de la religión. Theenthusiasm for Cabala and for its revelations of new spiritual depthsin the Scriptures was one of the factors leading towards Reformation.El entusiasmo por la cábala y de las nuevas revelaciones de suprofundidad espiritual en las Escrituras es uno de los factores queconducen hacia la Reforma. . . . . . . The Cabalist influence on Renaissance Neoplatonism . Cabalist influencia en el neoplatonismo renacentista. . . . . tendedto affect the movement in a more intensively religious direction, andmore particularly in the direction of the idea of religious reform. 19tienden a afectar a la circulación en una dirección más intensamentereligiosa y, más concretamente, en el sentido de la idea de la reformareligiosa. 19

Yateshas delineated how understanding Kabbalah and its penetration intoChristian culture are essential not only for comprehending Renaissancethought but also for studies of the Elizabethan age, Reformationreligious ideals, the seventeenth-century Rosicrucian Enlightenment,and much that followed, including the emergence of occult Masonicsocieties in mid-seventeenth century England. Yates ha delineadola comprensión de cómo la Cabalá y su penetración en la culturacristiana son esenciales no sólo para comprender el pensamientorenacentista, sino también para los estudios de la edad isabelina,Reforma ideales religiosos, el siglo XVII rosacruces Ilustración, ymucho que siguieron, incluida la aparición de ocultismo Masonicsociedades a mediados de siglo XVII, Inglaterra.

Fromits early medieval development in Spain, Jewish Kabbalah existed inclose proximity to the Christian world and inevitably aroused noticeamong gentile observers. 20During the fourteenth and fifteenth centuries, Kabbalists increasinglyestablished a presence in several areas of Europe outside Spain, themost consequential of these perhaps being Italy, where Kabbalah soontouched the vanguard of Renaissance life. Desde sus inicios eldesarrollo medieval en España, Cábala judía existía en las proximidadesde el mundo cristiano y suscita inevitablemente Aviso gentil entre losobservadores. 20Durante los siglos XIV y XV, Kabbalists establecido una presencia cadavez más en varias zonas de Europa fuera de España, la más consecuentetal vez de estos ser Italia, donde la Cabalá antes tocado la vanguardiadel renacimiento de la vida. Thenin 1492 came one of the great tragedies in Jewish history: the violentexpulsion of Jews from newly unified Christian Spain. Luego en1492 llegó una de las grandes tragedias de la historia judía: laviolenta expulsión de los Judios de España recién unificada cristiana. Forciblyexpelled from their homeland, they fled to Italy, France, Germany, tothe England of Henry the VII, and to Turkey, Palestine, and NorthAfrica. Expulsados por la fuerza de su patria, que huyó aItalia, Francia, Alemania, en la Inglaterra de Enrique VII, y deTurquía, Palestina, y el norte de África. With them went Kabbalah. Con ellos fue la Cabalá.

European culture in the fifteenth century had been animated by explorations, sciences, and bold visions reborn. La cultura europea en el siglo XV había sido animado por las exploraciones, las ciencias, y audaces visiones renacer. Man stepped out from the shadow of the Creator and found himself master of worlds, capable of knowing God's handiwork. El hombre salió de la sombra del Creador y se encontró a sí mismo maestro de los mundos, capaz de conocer a Dios de la obra. He discovered himself: the jewel of creation, the measure of all things. Descubrió a sí mismo: la joya de la creación, la medida de todas las cosas. Perhaps no place was ablaze in this creative fire more than the Florentine courts of Cosimo and Lorenzo de' Medici. Quizás ningún lugar se prendió fuego en este fuego creativo más que el florentino tribunales de Cosimo y Lorenzo de 'Medici. Cosimohad assiduously collected the rediscovered legacies of Greek andAlexandrian antiquity (an effort facilitated by the exodus west afterthe Turkish conquest of the Byzantine Empire in 1453). Cosimoasiduamente había recogido el legado de redescubierto griego deAlejandro Magno y la antigüedad (un esfuerzo por facilitar el éxodooeste turco después de la conquista del Imperio Bizantino en 1453). But most important, in 1460 he acquired and had brought to Florence the Corpus Hermeticum, a collection of fourteen ancient religious treatises on God and man.Authoritatively mentioned in the early Christian patristic writings ofSt. Augustine and Lactantius, these "lost" texts were thought to havebeen authored in antiquity by one Hermes Trismegistos ("Thrice GreatHermes"), an ancient Egyptian prophet older than Moses, a knower ofGod's ancient but forgotten truths, and a seer who foretold the comingof Christ. 21Though eventually dated to the Gnostic milieu of the second century CE,sixteenth-century scholars believed that Hermes Trismegistos and the Hermetica were an occult source that nurtured true religion and philosophy from Moses to the Greek philosophers of late antiquity. 22 Pero lo más importante, adquirió en 1460 y había llevado a Florencia el Corpus Hermeticum,una colección de catorce religiosos antiguos tratados sobre Dios y elhombre. Autoridad mencionada en los primeros escritos cristianospatrística de San Agustín y Lactantius, estas "perdido" los textosfueron cree que se han escrito en la antigüedad por un HermesTrismegistos ( "Tres veces Gran Hermes"), un antiguo egipcio de más deprofeta Moisés, un conocedor de Dios de verdades antiguas, peroolvidado, y una vidente que predijo la venida de Cristo 21. Aunque el tiempo de entorno a la gnóstica del siglo II EC, del siglo XVI los estudiosos cree que Hermes Trismegistos y la Hermetica se oculta una fuente que nutre la verdadera religión y la filosofía de Moisés a los filósofos griegos de la antigüedad tardía. 22

The influence of the Corpus Hermeticum was remarkable, its diffusion among intellectuals immense; it epitomized the Renaissance world view, a reborn prisca theologia, "the pristine font of ancient and Divine illumination." La influencia del Corpus Hermeticumfue notable, su gran difusión entre los intelectuales, sino que resumela visión del mundo del Renacimiento, un renacimiento de Prisca theologia ", la fuente prístina de la antigua y la iluminación divina". Ina variety of ways, Renaissance thought was radically transformed by theHermetic doctrine that man was infused with God's light and divinity:"You are light and life, like God the Father of whom Man was born. Iftherefore you learn to know yourself . . . you will return to life." 23Man was a divine, creative, immortal essence in union with a body, andman reborn "will be god, the son of God, all in all, composed of allPowers." 24En una variedad de maneras, el pensamiento renacentista fueradicalmente transformado por la doctrina Hermética que el hombre hasido infundido con la luz de Dios y la divinidad: "Ustedes son la luz yla vida, como Dios el Padre de los cuales el hombre ha nacido. Siusted, por lo tanto, aprender a conocer a ti mismo. .. vas a volver ala vida. "23El hombre era un divino, creativo, inmortal en esencia una unión con elcuerpo y el hombre renace" será dios, el hijo de Dios, en conjunto,integrado por todos los poderes. "24

Kabbalahmade a dramatic entry on the Renaissance stage at almost precisely thesame time the rediscovered Hermetic writings were gaining widedissemination in the elite circles of Europe. Cabalá hizo unaentrada espectacular en la etapa del Renacimiento en casi exactamenteel mismo tiempo, la redescubrió Hermética escritos están ganando unaamplia difusión en los círculos elitistas de Europa. Theinitial impetus for study of Kabbalah as a Christian science and forits integration with Hermeticism came from Florentine prodigy Picodella Mirandola (1463-94). El impulso inicial para el estudio dela Cabalá como cristiano la ciencia y para su integración conHermetismo florentino prodigio vinieron de Pico della Mirandola(1463-94). Pico'sphilosophical education was initiated under the Hermetic and Platonicinfluence of the Medici Academy and court, of which he became anintellectual luminary. About age twenty he began his studies ofKabbalah, a pursuit furthered by Jewish Kabbalists who assisted him intranslating a considerable portion of Kabbalistic literature into Latinand then aided his understanding of their occult interpretations. 25In 1486 Pico penned the "Oration on the Dignity of Man"--one of theseminal documents of the Renaissance--as an introduction to the famous900 theses which he intended to debate publicly in Rome that year.Pico de la educación filosófica se inició bajo la influencia platónicay hermético de la Academia de Medici y los tribunales, de la cual seconvirtió en una lumbrera intelectual. Acerca de los veinte añoscomenzó sus estudios de la Cabalá, un ejercicio promovido porKabbalists judío que le ayudó a traducir una parte considerableKabbalistic de la literatura en latín y, a continuación, con ayuda desu comprensión de sus interpretaciones ocultas. 25En 1486 Pico escribió la "oración sobre la Dignidad del Hombre" - unode los documentos básicos del Renacimiento - como una introducción a lafamosa tesis que 900 tenía la intención de debatir públicamente en Romaese mismo año. More than a hundred of these 900 theses came from Kabbalah or Pico's own Kabbalistic research. 26"The marrying together of Hermetism and Cabalism, of which Pico was theinstigator and founder," notes Yates, "was to have momentous results,and the subsequent Hermetic-Cabalist tradition, ultimately stemmingfrom him, was of most far-reaching importance." 27 Más de un centenar de tesis de estos 900 provenían de la Cabalá o Pico de la propia investigación Kabbalistic. 26"El matrimonio y la unión de Hermetismo Cabalism, de la que Pico fue elinstigador y fundador", señala Yates, "iba a tener resultadosimportantes, y la posterior Hermética-Cabalist tradición, en últimainstancia, se derivan de él, fue de más trascendencia. "27

Hermeticism found a perfect companion in Kabbalah. Hermetismo encontrar un compañero perfecto en la Cabalá. Sympathiesthat can be drawn between the two occult sciences, both supposedancient and divine, are remarkable, and it is easy to see how theywould have impressed themselves upon sixteenth-century philosophers:Kabbalah originated with God's word to Adam and the ancient Jewishprophets after him; Hermeticism was the sacred knowledge of the ancientEgyptian Gnosis, the legacy of a thrice-great prophet, transmitted tothe greatest pagan philosophers, and foretelling the coming of thedivine Word (Logos). Simpatía que se puede distinguir entre lasdos ciencias ocultas, como se supone antiguo y divino, son notables, yes fácil ver la forma en que ellos mismos han impresionado a losfilósofos del siglo XVI: la Cabalá se originó con la palabra de Dios aAdán y los antiguos profetas judíos después de él; Hermetismo fue elconocimiento sagrado de los antiguos egipcios la Gnosis, el legado deun gran profeta, tres veces, se transmiten a los más grandes filósofospaganos, y predecir la llegada de la divina Palabra (Logos). Bothplaced considerable interest in a mystical reinterpretation of theCreation; the Hermetic text Pimander, often called "the EgyptianGenesis," complimented the new vision gained from a Kabbalisticrevisioning of the Hebrew Genesis. 28Each taught the great "Art" of Divine knowledge based on the tenet thatman is able to discover the Divine, which he reflects within himselfthrough direct perceptive experience. Puesto tanto interés enuna reinterpretación mística de la Creación, el hermético textoPimander, a menudo llamado "el egipcio Génesis", felicitó a la nuevavisión adquirida en un Kabbalistic revisioning del Génesis hebreo. 28Cada enseñó el gran "arte" de la Divina conocimiento basado en elprincipio de que el hombre es capaz de descubrir la Divinidad, querefleja en sí mismo a través de la experiencia perceptiva. Andboth offered paths to God's hidden throne, the divine intellect, wherehumankind might find revealed the secrets of heaven and earth. Yambos ofrecen rutas a escondidas trono de Dios, el intelecto divino,donde la humanidad puede encontrar revelado los secretos del cielo y latierra. Elementafter element of Renaissance thought and culture is linked to the forceof a new religious philosophy born of these two Gnostic traditionsintermingling in the cauldron of Western culture's rebirth.Elemento después de elemento de pensamiento y la cultura renacentistaestá vinculada a la fuerza de una nueva filosofía religiosa nació deestas dos tradiciones gnóstica mezcla en el crisol de la culturaoccidental del renacimiento. Indeed, Yates suggests that the true origins of the Renaissance genius may be dated from two events: the arrival of the Corpus Hermeticum in Florence and the infusion of Kabbalism into Christian Europe by the Spanish expulsion of the Jews. 29De hecho, Yates sugiere que el verdadero origen del genio renacentistade fecha puede ser a partir de dos acontecimientos: la llegada del Corpus Hermeticum en Florencia y la infusión de Kabbalism en la Europa cristiana por los españoles la expulsión de los Judios 29.

Christian Kabbalah advanced an innovative reinterpretation of the Jewish tradition. Cábala cristiana avanzado un innovador reinterpretación de la tradición judía. ForPico and many influential Christian Kabbalists after him this ancientGnostic tradition not only was compatible with Christianity but offeredproofs of its truth. Pico y para muchos cristianos influyentesKabbalists después de él esta antigua tradición gnóstica, no sólo eracompatible con el cristianismo, sino que ofrece pruebas de su verdad. Manyearly Christian Kabbalists were, like Pico, not only scholars butChristian priests investigating remnants of a holy and ancientpriesthood, rife with power and wisdom endowed by God. Muchos delos primeros cristianos fueron Kabbalists, como Pico, no sóloacadémicos, sino también a sacerdotes cristianos investigar los restosde un antiguo y sacerdocio santo, lleno de poder y sabiduría dotadospor Dios. Theircooptation of the tradition was of course disavowed by most JewishKabbalists--though some aided and encouraged the development and a fewconverted to Christianity. Su cooptación de la tradición es, porsupuesto, desautorizó por la mayoría judía Kabbalists - aunque algunosayudado y alentado el desarrollo y unos pocos se convirtió alcristianismo. But to the Christian scholars and divines who embraced it, Kabbalah was Pero para los cristianos y estudiosos divines que se abrazaron, se Cabalá

aHebrew-Christian source of ancient wisdom which corroborated not onlyChristianity, but the Gentile ancient wisdoms which [they] admired,particularly the writings of "Hermes Trismegistus".hebreo-cristiano una fuente de sabiduría antigua, que corrobora no sóloel cristianismo, pero la sabiduría antigua Gentile que [ellos]admirado, especialmente los escritos de "Hermes Trismegistus". ThusChristian Cabala is really a key-stone in the edifice of Renaissancethought on its "occult" side through which it has most importantconnections with the history of religion in the period. 30Así cábala cristiana es en realidad una clave-la piedra en el edificiodel pensamiento renacentista en su "oculta" lado a través de la cual seha más importantes conexiones con la historia de la religión en elperíodo 30.

Thiswas not just a speculative philosophy, but a new (though cautious andoften occult) religious movement which radically reinterpretednormative Christianity. Esto no es sólo una filosofíaespeculativa, sino una nueva (aunque a menudo oculta y prudente),movimiento religioso que el cristianismo radical reinterpretadanormativo. In some fashion it touched every important creative figure of the Renaissance. De alguna manera que tocó todos los creativos importante figura del Renacimiento. Toan age seeking reformation and renewal, there had come forgotten booksby prophets of old--pagan and Hebrew--who foresaw the coming of theDivine creative Logos, who knew the secret mysteries given to Adam, whotaught that man might not only know God, but in so knowing, discover astartling truth about himself. A una edad que buscan la reformay renovación, se ha llegado olvidado por los libros de los antiguosprofetas - pagano y hebreo - que preveía la llegada de la Divinacreativa Logos, que conocían el secreto misterios dada a Adán, queenseña que el hombre podría no sólo conocer a Dios, pero en lo queconocer, descubrir un sorprendente verdad acerca de sí mismo. Theseideas reverberated in the creative religious imagination of the Westernworld for several centuries, perhaps even touching--though illusivelyand attenuated by time--the American religious frontier of the 1820s.Estas ideas reverberado en la imaginación creativa religiosas del mundooccidental durante varios siglos, tal vez incluso tocar - illusively yaunque atenuados por el tiempo - la frontera de la América religiosa ladécada de 1820.

La manera Hermética-Kabbalistica de ver el Mundo  

ChristianKabbalah was not a recapitulation of the Jewish tradition, but itscreative remolding, a metamorphosis engendered by newly arousedreligion-making vision. Christian Cabalá no es unarecapitulación de la tradición judía, pero su remolding creativa, unametamorfosis generada por la religión recién despertado de toma devisión. Thoughit would be too bold to judge Gnosticism a legitimate historicalparent, this movement was arguably encouraged and fostered by distanttransmissions and legacies of the old heresy. In the broad creativeconfluence of Kabbalah, Hermeticism, and alchemy were numerous eddiesand counter-currents. Aunque sería demasiado audaz para juzgargnosticismo histórico legítimo de sus padres, este movimiento fue sinduda alentado y promovido por la transmisión a distancia y los legadosde la antigua herejía. En el amplio confluencia creativa de la Cabalá,Hermetismo, la alquimia y numerosos remolinos y contra-corrientes . Likeearly Christian Gnosticism, the tradition reborn had a dynamism whichbred creative reinterpretation, and the important and subtledistinctions among its various redactions form the subject ofspecialized study. Gnosticismo como cristiana primitiva, latradición renace un dinamismo que había criado reinterpretacióncreativa, y la importante y sutiles distinciones entre sus diversasredacciones son objeto de estudio especializado. Nonetheless,there are a few themes echoed so often by sixteenth- andseventeenth-century proponents of this alternative, reformativephilosophic and religious vision (which I hereafter refer to simply asHermeticism) that they may serve almost as its hallmarks. Noobstante, hay algunos temas se hizo eco de tan a menudo por el XVI yXVII siglo proponentes de esta alternativa, de reforma visiónfilosófica y religiosa (que en adelante se refieren a ellos simplementecomo Hermetismo) que puede servir casi como su sello distintivo.

The first of these essential elements was mentioned above: humankind is the bearer of an uncreated, divine, immortal spark.El primero de estos elementos esenciales se ha mencionado más arriba:la humanidad es el portador de una increada, divina, inmortal chispa.This theme was mirrored in the next keynote, developed in bothKabbalistic and Hermetic sources: there is a duality in creation. Saysthe Zohar : "The process of creation has taken place on twoplanes, one above and one below . . . . The lower occurrencecorresponds to the higher." This dictum appeared in almost identicalwording in the earliest Hermetic works. The revered text of the Tabula smaragdina--considered the summation of Hermetic wisdom and attributed to HermesTrismegistos--echoes this cryptic formula as its central mysticaltruth: "That which is below is above, that above is also below." 31The exegetical possibilities of this simple text plied the imaginationof new Hermetic philosophers. There are, they suggested, two realms ofreality--call them heaven and earth, spirit and matter, God and man--inrelation to each other, shadowing each other. What happens in one realmechoes in the other, the Divine life reflects itself in the life ofwomen and men, and they by their intentions and actions affect theDivine.

This idea infused Kabbalah, one example being the image of God as archetypal Man, the Adam Kadmon:Man below reflected the Divine form above. The influentialseventeenth-century Hermetic philosopher Robert Fludd interpreted thisidea to imply a spiritual creation which preceded the physical. God'sfirst creation, stated Fludd, was "an archetype whose substance isincorporeal, invisible, intellectual and sempiternal; after whose modeland divine image the beauty and form of the real world areconstructed." 32The terms macrocosmos and microcosmos--the outer form and the innerform--also reflected this duality. The outer formed creation of theuniverse--the macrocosmos--reflected (and was a reflection of) themicrocosmos--the inner mystery of creation and seed of God in man. Tothis view, both microcosmos and macrocosmos ultimately were dualmirrors of the Divine. These concepts resonate in Joseph Smith'stheosophy. 33

The correspondence of above and below molded the foundations of twoinfluential disciplines flourishing in the creative society of thesixteenth and seventeenth centuries: natural science and magic. In theHermetic world view, each was in part a scientific and a spiritualstudy. Science meant "knowledge," and knowledge led to Intelligence,the Divine glory uniting all truth into the wholeness of God'sconsciousness. 34Whether the Hermetic-Kabbalistic magus ventured to explore the divinehierarchies by magical invocations or the structures of matter bynatural science, he found mirrored the same light-dark face of God. 35 Magic and science each offered methodologies for investigating heaven and earth, the mind of God and the structure of nature, microcosmos and macrocosmos . As Pico della Mirandola explained, "Magic is the practical part of natural sciences." 36

The Hermetic scientist-philosopher-magus reasoned, given thecorrespondence between the two realms, creative manipulation of the oneaffected the other. Theurgic actions influencing the divine hierarchywere mirrored outwardly in nature; transformations effected in nature,or in the nature of man, were reflected in the supernal sphere: spiritand matter were coupled, even interdependent. To several leadingfigures of the age, this vision was a high spiritual calling; it evokedthe desire to reach upwards, to join in the eternal intelligence, theknowing vision of God's All-Seeing Eye. 37By piously pursuing occult knowledge of the archetypal structure ofcreation, the adept could find reflected the innermost secrets ofnature. Of course, for individuals of less lofty aspiration, theconcept of correspondences devolved to particular concerns--the commonmagic rejected and ridiculed in subsequent and more rationalistictimes. 38

This was an occult philosophy reborn into an age longing for spiritualregeneration, and its effects were far-reaching. Quite naturally, menand women sharing this vision sought techniques of communicating withthe divine hierarchies; Kabbalah provided both a framework for seekingsuch intercourse and an image of the divine order awaiting encounter.The wedding of Kabbalah with the Hermetic image of man gave birth(among many offspring) to the magical traditions contrived in thisperiod, represented by Cornelius Agrippa's immensely influential work, De occulta philosophia,first published in 1533. "Agrippa's occult philosophy," notes Yates, is"in fact . . . really a religion, claiming access to higher powers, andChristian since it accepts the name of Jesus as the chiefwonder-working name." 39Three centuries later these ideas and this text would order the magicalrituals and ceremonial implements possessed by members of the JosephSmith family on the religious frontier of early nineteenth-centuryAmerica.




  José Smith y la Cabalá: La conexión oculta

parte 2

by Lance S. Owens Lance S. Owens


Parte 2: Incluye páginas 134 - 166 de la obra publicada.

Alquimia

Essential to understanding the themes animating the Kabbalistic-Hermetic world view is a discussion of alchemy. Esencial para la comprensión de los temas de la animación del Kabbalistic hermético del mundo-es una discusión de la alquimia. Inpopular misconception, alchemy is an immature, empirical, andspeculative precursor of chemistry having as its primary concern thetransmutation of base metals into gold. 40This simplification touches at only the most superficial veneer ofalchemy; in stark contrast, current historical and psychologicalreadings of the alchemical tradition suggest it had complex rootsdelving into the religious or philosophical subsoils of Western cultureand aspirations far more subtle than the production of gold. Enerror, la alquimia es un inmaduro, empírico y especulativo deprecursores de la química que tiene como su principal preocupación dela transmutación de los metales básicos en oro. 40Esta simplificación se refiere sólo a la más superficial de la chapa dela alquimia, en marcado contraste, el actual histórico y psicológicolecturas de la tradición alquímica sugerir que había raíces complejasprofundizar en el subsuelo religiosas o filosóficas de la culturaoccidental y aspiraciones mucho más sutil que la producción de oro. Indeed, the dictum of medieval alchemists themselves avows this fact: Aurum nostrum no est aurum vulgi ("Our gold is not vulgar gold"). De hecho, el dictamen de los alquimistas medievales avows este hecho a sí mismos: Aurum nostrum no est vulgi Aurum ( "El oro no es oro vulgar").

Thehistorical foundations of alchemy rest in the same early Christianepoch and Gnostic cultural milieu that generated the texts of the Corpus Hermeticum and nurtured the early mystical roots of Kabbalah. 41As with Gnosticism and Hermeticism, after the emergence of Christianorthodoxy, alchemy submerged into the darker subsoil of Western cultureuntil the Middle Ages. Los fundamentos históricos de la alquimiade descanso en la misma época cristiana gnóstica y cultural que hangenerado los textos del Corpus Hermeticum y nutre las primeras raíces místicas de la Cabalá. 41Al igual que con Gnosticismo Hermetismo y, después de la aparición dela ortodoxia cristiana, sumergido en la alquimia el oscuro subsuelo dela cultura occidental hasta la Edad Media. Inthe twelfth and thirteenth centuries renewed contacts with Arabic andGreek alchemical materials, together with a reawakening interest inheterodox classical knowledge, inaugurated a new study of this ancient"Art." En los siglos XII y XIII reanuda las relaciones con elárabe y el griego alquímico materiales, junto con un despertar interésen el conocimiento clásico heterodoxo, inauguró un nuevo estudio deesta antigua "Arte". And to this study was eventually add-mixed Kabbalah. Y para este estudio fue mezclado añadir la Cabalá. No less a figure than Albertus Magnus (1193-1280) became an adept of alchemy and authored numerous alchemical works.No menos una cifra que Albertus Magnus (1193-1280) se convirtió en unadepto de la alquimia y autor de numerosas obras alquímicas. ToThomas Aquinas, the great student of Albertus and the signal theologianof the age, alchemical texts are also attributed--a fact suggesting thephilosophical and religious tenor of alchemical thought. 42 For the next four hundred years, alchemy ran like Ariadne's thread in a labyrinth of creative vision.Para Thomas Aquinas, el gran estudioso de la señal Albertus y teólogode la época, los textos alquímicos se atribuye también - un hecho quesugiere la filosóficas y religiosas tenor de pensamiento alquímico. 42 Para los próximos cuatro siglos, la alquimia funcionó como hilo de Ariadna en un laberinto de visión creativa. Asthe Age of Reason dawned, Isaac Newton, Robert Boyle, and John Lockewould secretly correspond on alchemy's occult mysteries; Newton is nowwell known to have penned more than a million words on the great Art. 43 A century and a half later its mystery would command Goethe's masterwork, Faust, considered by CG Jung "the final summit" of alchemical philosophy in its last creative extensions. 44Como la Edad de la Razón amanecido, Isaac Newton, Robert Boyle, JohnLocke y se corresponden en secreto sobre los misterios ocultos de laalquimia; Newton es ahora bien conocido por haber escrito más de unmillón de palabras sobre el gran arte. 43 Un siglo y medio después de su misterio que comando obra maestra de Goethe, Fausto, considerado por CG Jung, "la última cumbre" de la filosofía alquímica en su última creación extensiones 44.

Central to alchemy was the declaration of the Tabula smaragdina: That which is below is above, that above is also below. Fundamental para la alquimia fue la declaración de la Tabula smaragdina: Lo que está por debajo es superior, que es también inferior. In the alchemical view, matter, the substance below, was the compliment and reflection of the divine realm above.En opinión de la alquimia, la materia, la sustancia más adelante, fueel elogio y la reflexión de lo divino reino anteriormente. Thisperception was sometimes daringly extended in the face of Christiandogma to assert that matter was eternal and uncreated, a complement andmirror to the equally divine and uncreated spirit. Estapercepción se extendió audazmente a veces en la cara de el dogmacristiano para afirmar que la materia se increada y eterna, un espejo ycomplemento a la misma divina increada y espíritu. As Jung observed, "Matter in alchemy is material and spiritual, and spirit spiritual and material." 45 Within matter resided a light, the lumen naturae, which was both a reflection and eternal compliment of heaven's celestial glory, the lumen dei. This strange perception was amplified in an array of alchemical metaphors; the core image was a complexio oppositorum--expressed by dualities such as "light and dark," "material andspiritual," "wet and dry," "sun and moon," "manifest and occult,""feminine and masculine"--seeking transformative, salvific, andultimately creative union. Como observó Jung, "la materia en la alquimia es material y espiritual, y el espíritu espiritual y material." 45 En cuestión residía una luz, el lumen naturae, que era a la vez una reflexión y complementan eterna del cielo celeste de la gloria, el lumen dei. Este extraño percepción que se amplifica en una serie de metáforas alquímico, la imagen fue un núcleo complexio oppositorum- expresada por dualidades tales como "la luz y la oscuridad","material y espiritual", "húmedo y seco", "sol y la luna", "manifiestay oculta "," femeninas y masculinas "- la búsqueda de transformación,salvífica y, en última instancia la unión creativa. Thismending of divisions, above and below, required a work in proxy to beperformed by living men and women. Unaided by the alchemist--and hismystical sister and feminine companion--it could not be accomplished.Esta reparación de las divisiones, por encima y por debajo, requiere untrabajo en proxy para ser llevada a cabo por hombres y mujeres queviven. Ayuda por el alquimista - y su hermana y mística femeninacompañero - no ha podido ser realizada. (See Figure 3 .) (Ver Figura 3).

Thetreasure sought by the alchemist was often termed the "philosopher'sstone" (the antecedent of Joseph Smith's "seer's stone"): the pearl ofgreat price, the stone rejected by the builder, the filius philosophorum. 46Though the alchemical transformation was often described as atransmutation of base metal into gold--and though early alchemists hadexperimental laboratories and engaged in empirical exploration--thelate alchemical literature reveals that ultimately it was thealchemist's own human baseness which sought transmutation intosomething divine. El tesoro buscado por los alquimistas a menudose denomina la "piedra filosofal" (el antecedente de José Smith de la"vidente de piedra"): la perla de gran precio, la piedra rechazada porel constructor, el filius philosophorum 46.A pesar de que la transformación alquímica fue a menudo descrito comouna transmutación de los metales en oro - y aunque a principiosalquimistas habían experimentales y laboratorios dedicados a laexploración empírica - los fines de la literatura alquímica revela que,en última instancia era el alquimista de la propia bajeza humana quebusca la transmutación en algo divino. Thusthe alchemist was a necessary agent of creative transmutation: a priestin a hallowed, ancient priesthood; a son of the Widow; a knower ofcreation's ancient secret; a digger after hidden treasure. 47 The heart of this tradition was embodied in its ultimate mysteries: the hierosgamos, or "sacred wedding," and the mysterium coniunctionis, a mysterious union of opposites that eternally wed male to female, matter to spirit, above to below, microcosmos to macrocosmos , humankind to divinity.Por lo tanto, el alquimista fue necesario un agente de transmutacióncreativa: un sacerdote en un sagrado, sacerdocio antiguo, un hijo de laviuda, un conocedor de la creación del antiguo secreto, un tesoroescondido tras excavadora. 47 El corazón de esta tradición fue plasmada en su último misterios: la HierosGamos, o "sagrado matrimonio", y el mysterium coniunctionis,una misteriosa unión de los opuestos que eternamente Miércoles hombresy mujeres, la materia al espíritu, de arriba para abajo, macrocosmos a microcosmos, a la humanidad a la divinidad.

Un legado de Sociedades Ocultas: Rosacruces y Masones

Bythe seventeenth century, the creative mix of Kabbalistic, Hermetic, andalchemical religious philosophies had nurtured among important sectorsof Europe's intellectual elite broad aspirations for a more generalreligious reformation, even a restoration of the ancient and truereligion. En el siglo XVII, la mezcla creativa de Kabbalistic,hermético, alquímico y filosofías religiosas habían alimentado entreimportantes sectores de la élite intelectual de la Europa ampliaaspiraciones más generales de una reforma religiosa, incluso larestauración de la antigua y verdadera religión. Insightfulindividuals at the creative edge of the culture judged their times andurgently sought an alternative to the vehement Reformation andCounter-Reformation madness which would soon bathe Europe in blood.Muy personas creativas en el borde de la cultura de su tiempo y juzgadosolicita urgentemente una alternativa a la Reforma y vehemente contraReforma locura que pronto se bañan Europa en la sangre. Onemight easily comprehend how this anxious age would be excited by themysterious announcement of a noble, secret, and ancient brotherhoodcalling itself the fraternity of the Rose Cross, summoning the elite ofEurope to join in a new reformation. 48 Thus began the Rosicrucian enlightenment.Uno puede comprender fácilmente cómo esta ansioso de edad se muestraentusiasmado por el misterioso anuncio de un noble, en secreto, y laantigua hermandad que se hace llamar la Fraternidad de la Rosa Cruz, laconvocatoria de la élite de Europa a unirse en una nueva reforma. 48 Así comenzó la rosacruces la iluminación.

In1614 the first of the enigmatic documents that would become known asthe "Rosicrucian manifestos" was published at Cassel, Germany. En 1614 el primero de los enigmáticos documentos que se conoce como la "manifiestos rosacruces" se publicó en Cassel, Alemania. Titled the Fama Fraternitatis, or a Discovery of the Fraternity of the Most Noble Order of the Rosy Cross, this strange work was a Titulado de la Fama Fraternitatis, o un descubrimiento de la Fraternidad de la Muy Noble Orden de la Cruz Rosy, este extraño trabajo era un

trumpet call which was to echo throughout Germany, reverberating thence through Europe. trompeta que se hacen eco en toda Alemania, y desde allí a través de Europa reverberante. God has revealed to us in the latter days a more perfect knowledge, both of his Son, Jesus Christ, and of Nature. Dios nos ha revelado en los últimos días de la más perfecta de conocimiento, tanto de su Hijo, Jesucristo, y de la Naturaleza. Hehas raised men endued with great wisdom who might renew all arts andreduce them all to perfection, so that man "might understand his ownnobleness, and why he is called Microcosmus, and how far this knowledgeextendeth into Nature." 49Se ha planteado los dotados de gran sabiduría que podrían renovar todaslas artes y la reducción de todos ellos a la perfección, por lo que elhombre "puede comprender su propia nobleza, y por qué le llamanMicrocosmus, y en qué medida este conocimiento extendeth en laNaturaleza." 49

The Famaproceeded to introduce the history of a mysterious individual called"CR" Born in 1378, CR was the founding father of the Rosicrucian order,a man who had labored long, though unrecognized, towards the generalreformation now declared. La Fama procedió a introducirla historia de un misterioso individuo llamado "CR" Nacido en 1378, CRfue el padre fundador de los rosacruces fin, un hombre que habíatrabajado mucho, aunque no reconocida, a la reforma ya declarada. CR (or Christian Rosencreutz as he was subsequently identified) had been an "illuminated man." CR (o Christian Rosencreutz como posteriormente fue identificado) había sido un "hombre iluminado". Asa sixteen-year-old boy he had traveled to the East where "the wisereceived him (as he himself witnesseth) not as a stranger, but as onewhom they had long expected; they called him by his name, and showedhim other secrets," including an important text called only "the bookM." The boy became skilled in language and translation, "so that theyear following he translated the book M into good Latin, which heafterwards brought with him." Como dieciséis años de edad quehabía viajado hacia el este, donde "el sabio le recibieron (como élmismo witnesseth) no como un extraño, sino como los que había una largaespera, que lo llamó por su nombre, y le mostró otros secretos ",incluido un importante texto llamado sólo" el libro de M. "El niño seconvirtió en experto en el idioma y la traducción", de manera que elaño siguiente el libro que él mismo ha traducido en buenos M Latina,que después trajo con él. " (The"book M" continued to play an important part in the Rosicrucian mythosas one of its treasures; of course, a vague outline of the story toldby Joseph Smith might here also be discerned.) CR then traveled acrossAfrica to Spain, (El "libro de M" siguió desempeñando un papelimportante en el mito rosacruces como uno de sus tesoros, por supuesto,una vaga descripción de la historia de Joseph Smith dijo aquí tambiénse podría discernir.) CR luego viajó a España a través de África,

hopingwell (that since) he himself had so well and so profitably spent histime in his travel, that the learned in Europe would highly rejoicewith him, and begin to rule and order all their studies according tothose sound and sure foundations. esperando así (ya que) élmismo había tan bien y tan rentable gastado su tiempo en su viaje, quela adquirida en Europa muy regocijan con él, y comenzar a la regla ypara todos sus estudios de acuerdo a los de sonido y seguro de lasfundaciones. He therefore conferred with the learned in Spain. Por lo tanto, se reunió con la adquirida en España. . . . . . . Butit was to them a laughing matter, and being a new thing unto them, theyfeared that their great name should be lessened, if they should nowagain begin to learn and acknowledge their many years errors.Pero era una risa que les importa, y de ser algo nuevo para ellos, quetemía que su nombre debe ser muy reducido, si se debe comenzar de nuevopara aprender y reconocer sus errores desde hace muchos años.

Rejected,Brother CR eventually returned to Germany and quietly established hisorder among those few men who "through especial revelation should bereceived into this Fraternity." Rechazado, el Hermano CRfinalmente regresó a Alemania y en silencio la sede de su orden entrelos pocos hombres que "a través de la revelación especial debe serrecibido en esta fraternidad". Among these men alone were shared and transmitted the secrets of the order. Entre estos hombres solos se compartieron y se transmiten los secretos de la orden. After death, CR's body was concealed in a tomb and eventually forgotten; but this lost vault, declared the Fama, had around the year 1604 been again found, opened, and entered.Después de la muerte, el cuerpo de CR se ocultó en una tumba yeventualmente olvidados, pero que se pierda esta bóveda, declaró la Fama, había alrededor del año 1604 se encontró de nuevo, abrió, y entró. Withinits miraculously lighted geometric confines CR's followers discoveredan altar, a "brass plate" upon which were engraved mysterious words andglyphs, several records of the order, and the book M. And now, the Famacontinued, Dentro de sus confines milagrosamente iluminadogeométrica CR seguidores descubrieron un altar, una "placa de latón" aque fueron grabadas las palabras y los misteriosos glifos, variosregistros de la orden, y el libro de M. Y ahora, continuó la Fama,

likeas our door was after so many years wonderfully discovered, also thereshall be opened a door to Europe (when the wall is removed) whichalready doth begin to appear, and with great desire is expected of many.como lo fue nuestra puerta después de tantos años maravillosamentedescubierto, también se abrió una puerta a Europa (cuando se elimina lapared) ¿Es que ya empiezan a aparecer, y con gran deseo de que seespera de muchos. . . . . . Howbeit we know after a time there will now be a general reformation, both of divine and human things. . Howbeit sabemos que después de un tiempo, será ahora una reforma general, tanto de las cosas divinas y humanas. . . . . . . Our Philosophy also is not a new invention, but as Adam after his fall hath received it, and as Moses and Solomon used it. 50Nuestra filosofía no es también una nueva invención, sino como Adándespués de su caída ha recibido, y como Moisés y Salomón utilizado 50.

Upon close examination the Fama Fraternitatis presents itself more as an allegory than as actual history, and this was probably its intent. Tras un examen detallado de la Fama Fraternitatis se presenta más como una alegoría que como la historia real, y esto es probablemente su intención. TheRosicrucian mythos was connected closely with the mysteries of alchemywhere allegorical legends of buried treasures miraculously rediscoveredwere particularly prevalent. 51 However, the story was generally interpreted literally.El mito rosacruces se conectó estrechamente con los misterios de laalquimia alegórica donde las leyendas de tesoros enterradosmilagrosamente se redescubrió particularmente frecuente. 51 Sin embargo, la historia fue generalmente interpretado literalmente. And the excitement it incited grew the following year with the publication of the second Rosicrucian manifesto, the Confessio Fraternitatis. 52This second manifesto repeated the message of the first, interpretingand intensifying it, and added a powerful apocalyptic and propheticnote: a great millennial reformation was at hand, and with it, a returnto an Adamic knowledge revealed by God: Y la emoción que incitan creció el año siguiente a la publicación del segundo manifiesto rosacruces, la confessio Fraternitatis. 52Este segundo manifiesto repetido el mensaje de la primera, y laintensificación de la interpretación, y añade un potente apocalíptica yprofética nota: una gran milenaria reforma estaba en la mano, y con él,el retorno a una Adamic conocimiento revelado por Dios:

Weought therefore here observe well, and make it known unto everyone,that God hath certainly and most assuredly concluded to send and grantto the world before her end, which presently thereupon shall ensue,such truth, light, life and glory, as the first man Adam had . .Debemos observar, por lo tanto, aquí también, y hasta que sea conocidade todos, que Dios y ciertamente más seguro para enviar y llegó a laconclusión de la concesión al mundo antes de su fin, entonces que en laactualidad se produce, por ejemplo, la verdad, la luz, la vida y lagloria, como la primer hombre Adán había.. . . . . So then, the secret hid writings and characters are most necessary for all such things . Entonces, el secreto y se escondió caracteres escritos son los más necesarios para todas estas cosas. . . . . . . Whatbefore times hath been seen, heard, and smelt, now finally shall bespoken and uttered forth, when the World shall awake out of her heavyand drowsy sleep, and with an open heart, bare-headed, and bare-foot,shall merrily and joyfully meet the new arising Sun. 53Veces antes de lo que ha sido visto, oído, y eperlano, ahora finalmentese pronunció sucesivamente hablado y, cuando el mundo se despierta desu pesado sueño y somnolencia, y con el corazón abierto, desnudoencabezados y pies desnudos, se alegremente con alegría y cumplir conlos nuevos derivados Domingo 53

One year later, in 1616, a third and final Rosicrucian document appeared, The Chemical Wedding of Christian Rosencreutz. Cast in the form of a long allegory in alchemical symbolism, it bid the wise of Europe approach a sacred royal marriage, a hierosgamos of mysterious mystical intent: Un año más tarde, en 1616, un tercer y último documento apareció rosacruces, La Bodas Químicas de Christian Rosencreutz.Reparto en forma de una larga alegoría en el simbolismo alquímico, queoferta la sabia Europa de un enfoque real sagrado matrimonio, una de HierosGamos misterioso intención mística:

This day, this day, this, this Este día, el día de hoy, este, este
The Royal Wedding is. La Boda Real es.
Art thou thereto by birth inclined, Eres la misma inclinación por nacimiento,
And unto joy of God design'd Y hasta la alegría de Dios design'd
Then may'st thou to the mountain tend Entonces tú may'st tienden a la montaña
Whereon three stately Temples stand, Whereon tres Templos imponente stand,
And there see all from end to end. 54 Y no ver todos de punta a punta 54.

The Rosicrucian manifestos caused a furor throughout Europe and England. Los manifiestos rosacruces causado un furor en toda Europa e Inglaterra. Individualsespousing sympathy with Rosicrucian ideals published numerous workslauding the brotherhood's purposes and petitioning acceptance into theorder. Defensa de solidaridad con las personas idealesrosacruces publicado numerosas obras felicitar a la hermandad depropósitos y solicitar admisión en la orden. Butto the dismay of all, the Rosicrucian brotherhood never declareditself, never accepted or acknowledged the many aspirants to itsfellowship, and indeed perhaps never even really (at least outwardly)existed. Sin embargo, ante la consternación de todos, lafraternidad nunca rosacruces declarado, nunca aceptado o reconocido losmuchos aspirantes a la beca, y, de hecho, tal vez ni siquiera realmente(al menos aparentemente) existía. Whilehistory has identified both the author of the manifestos--JohannValentin Andreae--and a wider group of individuals sharing in"Rosicrucian" aspirations, the deeper sources and purposes of themovement remain enshrouded in layers of mystery and supposition.Mientras que la historia ha determinado que tanto el autor de losmanifiestos - Johann Valentin Andreae - y un grupo más amplio depersonas que comparten en "rosacruces" aspiraciones, las fuentes másprofundas y efectos del movimiento siguen siendo envuelta en capas demisterio y la suposición.

Whatevertheir actual intent or origins, the manifestos crystallized a broadpreexisting alternative, reformative inclination in European society.Cualquiera que sea su intención o el origen real, los manifiestoscristalizó una amplia preexistentes alternativa, la inclinación dereforma en la sociedad europea. Thiswas a new/old religious vision steeped in Hermetic, Kabbalistic,alchemical, and in the broader definition, Gnostic, symbolism; a mythosthat had been brewing in the pregnant retort of European creativityover two prior centuries. 55The tradition's "doctrines"--imbued as they were with an experimental,experiential, creative and immensely personal vision--found expressionin a peculiar symbolic or hieroglyphic language, an idiom alchemical innature but ever more religious-philosophic than physical-chemical inintent. Esta es una nueva / vieja visión religiosa cargada deHermética, Kabbalistic, alquímicas, y en la definición más amplia,Gnóstico, el simbolismo, un mito que se ha elaborando cerveza en elembarazo de la creatividad europea retorta más de dos siglos antes. 55La tradición de "doctrinas" - imbuida como lo fueron con carácterexperimental, experimental, creativo e inmensamente visión personal -se ha plasmado en un peculiar lenguaje simbólico o jeroglíficos, unlenguaje alquímico en la naturaleza, pero cada vez másfilosófico-religiosa que físico-químicas en la intención. And interwoven in all was a new working of the old sacred mystery of Kabbalah. Y todos se entretejen en un nuevo trabajo de la antigua sagrado misterio de la Cabalá. Thisinfusion of Kabbalah was aided in the later seventeenth century byKnorr von Rosenroth's translation into Latin of several key Kabbalisticworks, including large sections of the Zohar --an effort that was immensely influential in the literate circles devoted to these studies. 56 There followed in the mid-to-late-seventeenth century, particularly in England, an alchemical renaissance.Esta infusión de la Cabalá fue ayudado en el siglo XVII después deKnorr von Rosenroth la traducción al latín de varias obras Kabbalistic,incluidos amplios sectores de la Zohar - un esfuerzo que fue enormemente influyente en los círculos dedicados a la alfabetización de estos estudios 56. Siguieron a mediados de los años a finales del siglo XVII, especialmente en Inglaterra, un renacimiento alquímico. Duringthis period the Hermetic "religion" of alchemy was augmented byKabbalistic imagery and fermented by a high spiritual quest forultimate, individual knowledge of God. Durante este período, laHermética "religión" de la alquimia se ha ampliado con imágenesKabbalistic y fermentada por una gran búsqueda espiritual por último,el conocimiento individual de Dios. It was this expansive alchemical Hermetic philosophy into which Isaac Newton and his fellows in the new Royal Society delved. 57 Fue esta filosofía expansiva alquímico hermético en el que Isaac Newton y sus compañeros en la nueva Real Sociedad explorado 57.

Thearcane Hermetic books produced by Christian philosophers during thisperiod circulated widely among the elite societies and intellects ofEurope. El arcano hermético libros producidos por los filósofoscristianos durante este periodo distribuyó ampliamente entre lassociedades y las élites intelectuales de Europa. Thesewere works composed in the idiom of symbolic language, replete withallegorical pictures hinting at humankind's noble mystery. 58 The "hieroglyphic" engravings often play at the theme of the complexio oppositorum, opposites seeking union, a motif conveyed by (or accompanied with) the arcane symbols of Sun and Moon (See Figure 4 .) In several figures trumpets herald the new dispensation, an image offered by the second Rosicrucian manifesto. 59 Emblematic of humankind having again remembered God's messengers, angels ascend and descend from heaven. 60We repeatedly find illustrated a sacred wedding of King and Queen,their holy conjunction being oft pictured as a carnal coupling whichleads through hermaphroditic forms to a new and regal heavenly being.Se trata de obras compuestas en el idioma del lenguaje simbólico, llenode imágenes alegóricas que aludía a la humanidad noble misterio. 58 La "jeroglíficos" grabados a menudo desempeñan en el tema de la complexio oppositorum, opuestos que buscan la unión, transmitida por un motivo (o acompañado con) los símbolos arcanos de Sol y la Luna (Ver Figura 4). En varias cifras trompetas anuncian la nueva dispensación, una imagen ofrecida por el segundo manifiesto rosacruces. 59 emblemáticos de la humanidad haya vuelto a recordar mensajeros de Dios, los ángeles suben y bajan del cielo 60.Estamos ilustra repetidamente encontrar una boda sagrado del Rey y laReina, su santo junto a menudo está representado como un acoplamientocarnal que conduce a través de formas hermafroditas a un nuevo y realde ser celestial. Here too we encounter a symbolic beehive. Aquí también nos encontramos con una colmena simbólico. The industry this beehive metaphorically bids, however, was misunderstood in latter days. La industria esta colmena metafóricamente las ofertas, sin embargo, fue mal entendido en estos últimos días. Inits primary context the "industry" was a secret, laborious concern ofalchemical transmutation: a transformation of dark matter into a pureand vital golden elixir--an alchemical opus performed within thealembic "hive" of the soul. 61 (See Figure 5.) Intimately associated and reigning over all the emblems of thisoccult hieroglyphic tongue was the supreme "All-Seeing Eye" of God, thesacred emblem of a perpetual divine and uncreated intelligence,humankind's single unfailing light (See Figure 6 ).En su contexto, la principal "industria" es un secreto, laboriosopreocupación alquímico de la transmutación: la transformación de lamateria oscura en un puro y vital elixir de oro - una obra alquímicarealizado alambique dentro de la "colmena" del alma. 61 (Ver Figura 5.)Íntimamente asociados y que reina sobre todos los emblemas de estalengua oculta jeroglíficos era la suprema "All-Seeing Eye" de Dios, elsagrado emblema de una perpetua divina increada y la inteligencia, lahumanidad solo inquebrantable luz (Ver Figura 6). Thistime, these emblematic books, this philosophy: these are thepropagating sources of the symbols finally carved in stone uponJoseph's Nauvoo temple. Esta vez, estos libros emblemáticos,esta filosofía: estas son las fuentes de propagación de los símbolostallados en piedra por último a José Nauvoo templo. Tothis Hermetic-alchemical tradition and its unique vision alone did theypertain, from it alone came an assertion of their sacred import.Para esta tradición hermético-alquímica y su visión única no solo quese refiere, desde que llegó solo una afirmación de su sagradoimportación. EarlyMormonism's affinity for and incorporation of the same symbolic motifsstrongly evidences its intrinsic link with the Hermetic tradition. 62 (See Figure 7 & 8 .)Principios de la afinidad por el Mormonismo y la incorporación de losmismos motivos simbólicos firmemente evidencia su vínculo intrínsecocon la tradición Hermética. 62 (Ver Figura 7 y 8.)

The import of myth and metaphor as a vehicle of the Hermetic-Kabbalistic tradition cannot be overstated. La importación de mito y metáfora como un vehículo de la tradición Hermética-Kabbalistic no puede ser exagerada. InGnostic studies the function of myth and symbol as a conduit for theexpression of primary vision is well accepted, and classical Gnosticismis now usually classified in terms of its mythic motifs.Gnóstico estudios en la función del mito y el símbolo como un conductopara la expresión primaria de la visión es bien aceptado, y ahora esclásico Gnosticismo suelen clasificarse en función de su mítico motivos. Likewise,within the Hermetic-Kabbalistic tradition the intricate interplay of"above and below" bred a unique matrix of myths: stories and symbolswhich conveyed by metaphor the savor of a primary and encompassingvision of God and humanity. Asimismo, dentro de la tradiciónHermética-Kabbalistic la intrincada interacción de "por encima y pordebajo de" una raza única matriz de los mitos: historias y los símbolosque transmitió por saborear la metáfora de la enseñanza primaria y unavisión de Dios y la humanidad. Integratedand developed over several hundred years, this Hermetic-Kabbalisticmythos reached maturation during the seventeenth century.Integrado y desarrollado a lo largo de varios cientos de años,esta-Hermética Kabbalistic mito maduración alcanzado durante el sigloXVII. Itis during the early and middle years of this key century that themythos most fully flowered, enveloping the separate traditions ofKabbalah, classical Hermeticism, and alchemy. Es durante losprimeros y medio años de este siglo que la clave mito más plena flor,envolviendo las tradiciones de la Cabalá, Hermetismo clásica, y laalquimia.

A creative mix of symbols and stories played variations on core archetypal themes during this period.Una creativa mezcla de símbolos e historias que desempeñan lasvariaciones sobre temas arquetípicos básicos durante este período. Detailed examination of these is beyond this essay. Examen detallado de estas está más allá de este ensayo. But there is one image which runs as a pervasive subtext, defining the tradition's fuller mythos: the motif of the mysterium coniunctionis. On earth and in heaven two paths intertwined; Man and God echoed to each other a flux of conjunctions.Pero hay una imagen que se ejecuta como un subtexto generalizada, ladefinición de la tradición del mito más completa: el motivo del misterio coniunctionis.Por la tierra y el cielo en dos caminos entrelazados; el Hombre y Diosse hizo eco de los unos a los otros un flujo de conjunciones. Matterand spirit, light and dark, masculine and feminine: all mingled in themystery, face to face. An array of opposites were personified asvehicles for the metaphor of this conjunction. Materia yespíritu, luz y oscuridad, masculino y femenino: todos se mezclaron enel misterio, cara a cara. Un conjunto de opuestos se personificó comovehículos de la metáfora de esta relación. To these was linked the companion image of the hierosgamos. It was a mystery foreshadowed by man and woman in first conjunction as Adam and Eve, proxies of creation's primary conundrum. A estos se vinculó la imagen del compañero HierosGamos.Se anunció un misterio por el hombre y la mujer en la primera relaciónde Adán y Eva, los poderes de la creación primaria del enigma. It became the sacred wedding of a King and Queen, the Rex and Regina of alchemy. 63 (see Figure 9.) Of course, there followed a parallel theme of the great mystery'sknower, the philosopher-priest-king who was the human mediator ofconjunction. Se convirtió en el sagrado matrimonio de un Rey y la Reina, el Rex y Regina de la alquimia. 63 (véase la Figura 9.)Por supuesto, siguió un tema paralelo de la gran conocedor delmisterio, el filósofo-rey-sacerdote que fue el mediador humanos deconjunción. Andplaying an important role in the specific form of several motifs(particularly those within the occult fraternities) came variations onthe story of Christian Rosencreutz, the book M, the sealed textawaiting translation, the hidden tomb, and the lost buried treasure.Y jugar un papel importante en la forma específica de varios motivos(en especial los de la oculta fraternidades) entró en las variacionesde la historia cristiana Rosencreutz, el libro H, el sellado de textoen espera de la traducción, la tumba oculta, y el tesoro perdido.

Perhapsin imitation of the mysterious Rose Cross brothers, and certainly inrational response to political exigencies, reformative religiousaspirations increasingly inclined during the subsequent century towardsthe formation of occult brotherhoods and societies. Tal vez enla imitación de los misteriosos hermanos Rosa Cruz, y desde luego enrespuesta racional a las exigencias políticas, las aspiraciones dereforma religiosa cada vez más durante el siglo posterior a laformación de cofradías y de las sociedades ocultas. Incongruent as it seems, this expansion of occult interests appeared hand-in-hand with the so-called "Age of Enlightenment." Incongruente, ya que parece, esta ampliación de intereses ocultos apareció la mano con el llamado "Siglo de las Luces". Agroup of highly informed Englishmen influenced by, or perhaps sharingin, Rosicrucian aspirations and symbolic language probably engenderedthe first secret Masonic lodges during the mid-seventeenth century. 64 The earliest generally accepted documentation of a Masonic initiation is found in the dairy of Elias Ashmole in 1646.Un grupo de ingleses muy influenciado por informado, o quizás en elintercambio, las aspiraciones y los rosacruces lenguaje simbólicogenerado probablemente el primer secreto masónico alberga durantemediados del siglo XVII. 64Los primeros generalmente aceptada la documentación de una iniciaciónmasónica se encuentra en la industria láctea de Elías Ashmole en 1646. Ashmole(1617-92) was an influential scholar and collector of books, a foundingmember of the Royal Society, and a man with an unquestionably extensiveknowledge of Rosicrucian materials. Ashmole (1617-92) fue uninfluyente estudioso y coleccionista de libros, un miembro fundador dela Royal Society, y un hombre, sin duda, con un amplio conocimiento delos materiales rosacruces. Amongthe documents preserved in his impressive library are the texts of theRosicrucian manifestos carefully copied in his own hand; to thesemanuscripts Ashmole had appended a letter, also in his own hand butapparently addressed to no one, praising the Rosicrucian fraternity andpetitioning admission. 65Entre los documentos conservados en su impresionante biblioteca son lostextos de los manifiestos rosacruces cuidadosamente copiados en supropia mano; a estos manuscritos Ashmole había adjunta una carta,también en su propia mano, pero al parecer dirigido a nadie, alabando ala fraternidad y rosacruces peticiones de admisión 65.

Bythe late seventeenth century, several occult Hermetic brotherhoods,including Masonic and Rosicrucian societies, existed in England.A fines de siglo XVII, varios Hermética oculta hermandades, incluidaslas sociedades masónicas y rosacruces, existían en Inglaterra. The relationship these fraternities had to the first Grand Masonic Lodge organized at London in 1717 remains unclear. La relación de estas Fraternidades tiene a la primera Gran Logia Masónica organizada en Londres en 1717 sigue siendo incierto. Althoughnoting that "Masonry underwent gradual changes throughout a period ofyears stretching from well before 1717 to well after that date," modernauthorities on Masonic history usually mark the beginnings of"speculative Masonry" to the decade following organization of thisfirst Grand Lodge. 66 Not long after this, around 1750, a specifically Rosicrucian order had been incorporated into French Masonry.Pese a que señala que "la Masonería sufrió cambios graduales a lo largode un período de años que va desde mucho antes de 1717 y después de esafecha," moderno autoridades historia Masónica generalmente marca elcomienzo de "la Masonería especulativa" en la década siguienteorganización de esta primera Gran Logia. 66 Poco tiempo después, alrededor de 1750, un fin específicamente rosacruces se habían incorporado en la Masonería francesa. Withinthe initiatory structure of the occult lodges, allegorical "mysteryplays" were used to convey, through symbolic ritual, the groundingmythos of Masonry--a mythos which appears to have been fundamentallyHermetic-Kabbalistic. 67Though several renditions of Masonic history still emphasize the roleof earlier "craft guilds" as a source of Freemasonry, relatively littleevidence supports this claim. Dentro de la estructura de lainiciación oculta posadas, alegórica "misterios" se utiliza paratransmitir, a través de rituales simbólicos, el mito de la Masonería atierra - un mito que parece haber sido fundamentalmenteHermética-Kabbalistic 67.A pesar de varias versiones de la historia Masónica todavía destacar elpapel de la anterior "gremios artesanales" como una fuente de laFrancmasonería, relativamente poca evidencia apoya esta reclamación. Evenif one grants the existence of some linkage of eighteenth-centuryMasonry with earlier craft guilds, this does not diminish the moldingforce Hermeticism, alchemy and Rosicrucianism had on the fraternity'ssymbolic and philosophic development. Incluso si se concede a laexistencia de algún vínculo de la Masonería del siglo XVIII conanteriores gremios artesanales, ello no disminuye la fuerza de moldeadoHermetismo, la alquimia y Rosicrucianism tenido en la fraternidad deldesarrollo simbólico y filosófico. (See Figure 10 .) Simply put: Eighteenth-century Masonry was forcefully shaped by esoteric Hermetic-Kabbalistic traditions. (Ver Figura 10.) En pocas palabras: la Masonería del siglo XVIII se forma por la fuerza esotérica-Hermética Kabbalistic tradiciones. Whileemphasizing this, I allow that several Masonic Lodges eventuallyevolved with less esoteric underpinnings and much simple fraternalintentions. Aunque haciendo hincapié en esto, me permitirá quevarias Logias Masónicas evolucionado con el tiempo menos esotéricobases mucho más sencillo y fraterno intenciones.

Takingnote of the increasing influence of Freemasonry in politics andsociety, German historians began attempting during the latter part ofthe eighteenth century to trace the historical roots of Masonry.Tomando nota de la creciente influencia de la masonería en la políticay la sociedad, comenzó a intentar historiadores alemanes durante laúltima parte del siglo XVIII para rastrear las raíces históricas de laMasonería. Evidence compiled during this period suggested those roots led not to King Solomon or the craft guilds, but to Rosicrucianism.Pruebas recopiladas durante este período sugirió esas raíces no llevóal rey Salomón o los gremios artesanales, sino a Rosicrucianism. Thisview was in wide circulation by the early nineteenth century, and in1824 the prominent English essayist Thomas De Quincey published adetailed restatement in London Magazine. 68 While AE Waite rejected this assertion in 1887, 69 Frances Yates recently restated a strong case for it.Esta opinión fue de amplia circulación a principios de siglo XIX, y en1824 el destacado ensayista Inglés Thomas de Quincey publicó undetallado reexpresión revista en Londres. 68 AE Waite Si bien rechazó esta afirmación en 1887, 69 Frances Yates reiteró recientemente un caso fuerte para que . "TheEuropean phenomenon of Freemasonry," she concluded in 1972, "almostcertainly was connected with the Rosicrucian movement." 70Whatever judgment one favors, it remains clear that during the periodof Joseph Smith's life Masonry was not uncommonly believed to beassociated with a Rosicrucian legacy of alchemical, Kabbalistic, andHermetic lore and its reformative religious aspirations. 71 "El fenómeno de la Francmasonería", concluyó en 1972, "casi seguro que estaba relacionado con los rosacruces circulación." 70Cualquiera que sea a favor de una sentencia, es obvio que durante elperíodo de la vida de José Smith no era infrecuente la Masonería creeque estar asociado con un legado de rosacruces alquímico, Kabbalistic,Hermética y tradiciones y sus aspiraciones de reforma religiosa. 71

Theeighteenth century was a fertile breeding ground for occult societies,almost all of which had groundings in a Hermetic-Kabbalistic frameworkand upon a bedrock of Masonry and Rosicrucianism. El siglo XVIIIfue un caldo de cultivo para las sociedades ocultas, casi todos de loscuales habían encallamientos en un Hermética-Kabbalistic marco y sobreuna base de mampostería y Rosicrucianism. Studentsunfamiliar with their history too commonly assume a consistency andcohesion in these movements, or confound them with the charitablefraternities that are their distant modern cousins. Losestudiantes no familiarizados con su historia muy común asumir unacoherencia y cohesión en estos movimientos, o confundir con la caridadde sus fraternidades que son primos lejanos moderna. On the contrary, a creative heterogeneity and religion-making mysticism was rampant among these groups. 72Existing orders and lodges were not uncommonly transmuted by the forceof strange individuals, new visions, and claims of ever moreenlightened, ancient origins. Por el contrario, una heterogeneidad creativa y de religión se toma de la mística desenfrenada entre esos grupos. 72pedidos existentes y se presenta no pocas transmuta por la fuerza delas personas extrañas, nuevas visiones, y las reivindicaciones de cadavez más ilustrada, orígenes antiguos. Examplescome easily: Adam Weishaupt who sought through his Masonic order of theIlluminati, founded in 1776, to transform German politics and society;the mysterious Comte de Saint-Germain (ca. 1710-85), a devotee ofalchemy and occult arts, who widely influenced continental lodges ofMasonry; Count Alessandro di Cagliostro (ca. 1743-95) who blendedEgyptian and Kabbalistic symbolism into his Egyptian Masonic rite, anorder which included men, women, and rumors of ritual sexual liaisons 73 ; Martinez de Pasqually (ca. 1715-79) and his Order of Les Elus Cohen(the Elect Priests), claiming a Kabbalistic, Masonic restoration of theancient priesthood of Judaism, a notion echoed in other esotericmanifestations of Masonry; and Louis Claude de St. Martin (1743-1803),disciple of de Pasqually, who long remained an influence upon Frenchoccultism. Ejemplos fácil: Adam Weishaupt, que busca a través desu orden masónica de los Illuminati, fundada en 1776, para transformarla política alemana y de la sociedad; el misterioso Conde deSaint-Germain (ca. 1710-85), un devoto de la alquimia y las artesocultas, que presenta ampliamente influenciado continental de laMasonería; Conde Alessandro di Cagliostro (ca. 1743-95) que mezclansimbolismo egipcio y Kabbalistic en su rito masónico de Egipto, queincluía una orden de hombres, mujeres, y los rumores de ritualessexuales enlaces 73; Martínez de Pasqually (ca. 1715-79) y su Orden de Les Elus Cohen(el electo Sacerdotes), alegando una Kabbalistic, Masonic restauracióndel antiguo sacerdocio del judaísmo, se hizo eco de una idea en otrasmanifestaciones esotéricas de la Masonería, y Louis Claude de SanMartín (1743-1803), discípulo de de Pasqually, que durante mucho tiempouna influencia en francés ocultismo. Tothese must be added the brilliant Swedish seer Emanuel Swedenborg(1688-1772), founder of a religious movement that touched esotericMasonry. 74Though several visionary figures stood in this rank of illuminates,eventually the broader manifestations of the movement attracted morethan a few opportunistic charlatans. Separating the two is no easierfor historians today than it was for their contemporaries. Aesto hay que añadir la brillante vidente sueco Emanuel Swedenborg(1688-1772), fundador de un movimiento religioso esotérico que tocó laMasonería. 74Aunque varias figuras fue visionario en este rango de ilumina, con eltiempo, las manifestaciones más amplias del movimiento atrajo a más deun unos charlatanes oportunistas. Separación de los dos no es más fácilpara los historiadores de hoy de lo que era para sus contemporáneos.

Insummary, common threads of a specific mythos weave through thesemovements and societies, even if they are not of one common cloth. En resumen, en común, de un mito tejido a través de estos movimientos y las sociedades, incluso si no son de una tela común. Inthe occult inclinations of the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries onefinds a recurrent theme of restoration: restoration of a more perfect,ancient order; of forgotten priesthood; of secret mysteries andrituals; and of lost occult words and powers. En el ocultismoinclinaciones de los siglos XVII y XVIII se encuentra un temarecurrente de la restauración: restauración de una más perfecta,antiguo orden; olvidado de sacerdocio, de misterios y rituales secretosy de la pérdida de las palabras y los poderes ocultos. Oftenthere mingles in the visionary fabric a practical thread: Man isintrinsically and eternally imbued with uncreated divine intelligence,an elixir by which he may alchemically transmute the dark materialworld--including its social and political structures--and thus restoreZion upon the earth. A menudo se mezcla en el tejido una visiónpráctica hilo: el hombre es intrínsecamente y eternamente impregnada deinteligencia divina increada, por un elixir que puede transmutar laoscuridad alquímicamente mundo material - incluidas sus estructurassociales y políticas - y, por tanto, a la restauración de Sión tierra. Itwas an opus reflected in allegories, glyphs, and symbols, by a canonreopened and reinterpreted, and in ancient lost books again found:buried, hidden, golden treasures all awaiting men and women who woulddelve. Se trata de una obra se refleja en alegorías,jeroglíficos y símbolos, por un canon y reabrió de nuevo, y en laantigua libros perdidos de nuevo: enterrados, ocultos, tesoros de oroen espera de todos los hombres y mujeres que profundizar. Forseers of this age the tasks at hand were personal, but by nature theinner opus was reflected outwardly: microcosmos and macrocosmos wereinextricably linked. Para videntes de esta edad las tareas alalcance de la mano fueron personales, pero por la naturaleza de la obrainterior se refleja hacia el exterior: microcosmos y el macrocosmosestán inextricablemente ligados. Thisbroad world view engendered laborers in an ancient craft, builders of anew temple--a mystical structure ordered above and below by livinglinks of light and vision--and in the Holy of Holies of this sanctumthey sought a sacred wedding of transformative union, a mysterium coniunctionis.It was in sum a Hermetic-Kabbalistic mythos, deeply admixed withalchemy, reformed by Rosicrucianism, and conjoined with a Mason'scompass and square. Esta amplia visión del mundo han surgido enlos trabajadores un antiguo oficio, constructores de un nuevo templo -una estructura mística ordenado por encima y por debajo de los enlacesque viven de la luz y la visión - y en el Santo de los Santos de estesantuario sagrado buscaron una boda de transformación sindicato, un misterio coniunctionis.Es en suma un Kabbalistic Hermética-mito, muy mezclado con la alquimia,reformada por Rosicrucianism, y conjoined con una brújula y Masoncuadrados. And at its esoteric core there shone a distant Gnostic spark. Y en su núcleo esotérico existe brilló una chispa distante gnóstica.

  Hermetismo y el Mundo Mágico 

Adecade ago Mormon historians were forced to confront the subject ofJoseph Smith and the occult or magic world view, a confrontation causedin part by the "discovery" of the so-called "Salamander" letter.Hace una década Mormón historiadores se vieron obligados a confrontarel tema de Joseph Smith y la oculta o la magia del mundo, unenfrentamiento provocado en parte por el "descubrimiento" de ladenominada "Salamandra" carta. Repletewith references to seer stones, treasures, and enchantments, the letteralso related that Joseph Smith obtained the Book of Mormon not from anangel, but from a magical white salamander which Repleto dereferencias a la vidente piedras, tesoros y encantamientos, la cartatambién relató que José Smith obtuvo el Libro de Mormón no de un ángel,pero a partir de un mágico color blanco que salamandra transfigured itself into a spirit. 75Though the letter was subsequently proved a forgery, for two yearshistorian labored under the assumption that the letter and severalcompanion forgeries were genuine. transfigurada en un espíritu. 75A pesar de que la carta era una falsificación, posteriormente, durantedos años el historiador trabajó bajo el supuesto de que la letra y elcompañero de varias falsificaciones eran auténticos. Inthe wake of these events the prophet Joseph Smith's spiritual rootscame under a careful scrutiny. Ironically, investigators soon broughtto the surface a wealth of unquestionably genuine material--much of itlong available but either misunderstood or ignored--substantiating thatSmith and his family had a variety of interactions with non-orthodoxWestern religious traditions generally termed "occult." Repercussionsfrom this difficult period in Mormon studies are still playing out.A raíz de estos acontecimientos el profeta José Smith de raícesespirituales fue objeto de un cuidadoso escrutinio. Irónicamente, losinvestigadores pronto trajo a la superficie una gran cantidad dematerial auténtico, sin duda, - gran parte de ella, pero siempredisponible, ya sea malinterpretado o ignorado - justificando que Smithy su familia tenía una gran variedad de interacciones con los noortodoxos tradiciones religiosas occidentales en general calificó de"oculto". repercusiones de este difícil período de Mormón estudiostodavía están fuera de juego.

Cast into the realm of occult history, historians tried to make sense of this "occult" Joseph Smith and early Mormonism.Emitidos en el ámbito oculto de la historia, los historiadores trataronde dar sentido a esta "oculto" de José Smith y principios Mormonismo. Thegeneral interpretation eventually adopted by many investigatorsstructured Joseph Smith's links to the occult within the sociologicalcontext of New England folk magic and its "magic world view." Lainterpretación general finalmente adoptado por muchos investigadoresestructurado de José Smith a los vínculos de lo oculto dentro delcontexto sociológico de la magia popular de Nueva Inglaterra y su"visión del mundo mágico." D. Michael Quinn's seminal study Early Mormonism and the Magic World View was initiated during this period. D. Michael Quinn del estudio seminal Temprana Mormonismo y la magia del mundo se inició durante este período. In his introduction, Quinn began by exorcising the forgeries and summoning the facts: En su introducción, Quinn comenzó exorcizar las falsificaciones y la convocatoria de los hechos:

the historical issues these forgeries raised . la falsificación histórica estas cuestiones planteadas. . . . require, I believe, a careful re-evaluation of evidence long in existence regarding early Mormonism and magic.. Exigen, en mi opinión, una cuidadosa reevaluación de las pruebas delargo con respecto a principios de existencia en el Mormonismo y magia. . . .. . . Sources[whose authenticity are beyond question] provide evidence of JosephSmith's participation in treasure digging; the possession and use ofinstruments and emblems of folk magic by Smith, his family members, andother early LDS leaders; the continued use of such implements forreligious purposes in the establishment and early years of Mormonism;and the sincere belief of many early Mormons in the magic world view. 76Fuentes [cuya autenticidad está fuera de toda duda] presentó pruebas dela participación de José Smith en el tesoro excavando; la posesión y eluso de instrumentos y emblemas de la magia popular por Smith, losmiembros de su familia, y otros principios de LDS dirigentes; lacontinuación del uso de tales implementos para religiosos efectos en lacreación y primeros años del Mormonismo, y la creencia sincera demuchos principios de los mormones en la magia del mundo. 76

Subsequently, Quinn moved beyond these simple data. Posteriormente, Quinn se trasladó más allá de estos simples datos. Indeed, "comprehensive" is hardly an adequate description of his survey. De hecho, "global" no es una descripción adecuada de su estudio. Magicalrituals, Kabbalah, Hermes Trismegistos, Rosicrucians, Seer's stones,divining rods, Masonic lore, and astrology: Quinn binds them all, byevidence weak and strong, to Joseph. Rituales mágicos, laCabalá, Hermes Trismegistos, Rosa, todo lo ve de piedras, varillasadivinando, tradición masónica, y la astrología: Quinn se une a todosellos, por pruebas débiles y fuertes, a José. Lessintegrative than extensive, his study is a foundation work which--asany such work should--leaves far more questions unresolved thananswered. Menos amplia de integración que, su estudio es unabase de trabajo que - como cualquier trabajo - deja mucho más queresponde a las preguntas sin resolver.

The subject broached by this effort demands further evaluation. El tema abordado por este esfuerzo exige una nueva evaluación. A crucial correction, however, must be made to the methodology used in examining the data: the concept of a magic Weltanschauungor "world view" must be balanced with an intensive historical castingof early nineteenth-century occultism's lineages and mythos. Una de las correcciones, sin embargo, debe hacerse a la metodología utilizada en el examen de los datos: el concepto de magia Weltanschauung o "visión del mundo" debe equilibrarse con una intensa historia de la primera colada del siglo XIX el ocultismo y linajes mito. Particularly important is a careful examination of Hermeticism and the nature of the religious vision it encouraged. Particularmente importante es un examen cuidadoso de Hermetismo y la naturaleza de la visión religiosa alentó.

Facedwith a vast subject, Quinn constructed an arena for its study bycircumscribing the concept of a "magic world view" within the cultureof early America, and then summoning the various facts that drew JosephSmith and other early Mormons into that circle. Frente a un grantema, Quinn construyó un escenario para su estudio por circunscribir elconcepto de una "visión del mundo mágica" en la cultura de principiosde América y, a continuación, convocar a los diversos hechos que señalaa José Smith y otros principios de los mormones en ese círculo. The definition of "magic" came from Webster's Third International Dictionary, augmented and slightly expanded. La definición de "magia" provienen de Webster's Third International Dictionary, aumentada y ligeramente ampliado. Magicis (and not to quote the whole definition given by Quinn, I willabbreviate) the "use of means . . . that are believed to havesupernatural power to cause a supernatural being to produce or preventa particular result"; the control of natural forces "by the typicallydirect action of rites, objects, materials, or words consideredsupernaturally powerful." Later Quinn adds that magic tends toincorporates an animistic world view and a sense of a chain ofcausation behind event. Though it can be supplicative, its intent isoften coercive. 77One is ill-advised to argue here with Quinn's general approach ordefinition of magic and its world view; given the many constrains uponsuch a path-breaking investigation, both are well enough chosen.Magic es (y no citar a toda la definición dada por Quinn, voy aabreviar) la "utilización de los medios... Que se cree que el podersobrenatural para causar un ser para producir o impedir un resultadodeterminado"; el control de las fuerzas de la naturaleza ", por logeneral la acción directa de los ritos, objetos, materiales, o palabrassupernaturally considerado poderoso". Quinn Luego añade que la magiatiende a animistas incorpora una visión del mundo y el sentido de unacadena de causalidad detrás evento. Aunque se puede supplicative , suintención es a menudo coercitivas. 77Una de ellas es mal aconsejado a discutir aquí con el enfoque generalQuinn o la definición de la magia y su visión del mundo, dadas lasmuchas limitaciones a ese pionero de investigación, los dos son losuficientemente bien elegido. Nonetheless their static sociological and philological correctness partially obscures a more complex process at play. No obstante su estática sociológico corrección filológica y parcialmente oculta un proceso más complejo en el juego.

Magic came in many forms, high and low. La magia llegó en muchas formas, alta y baja. Asdiscussed earlier, in Europe the medieval legacy of magic wastransformed between the fifteenth and seventeenth centuries by aninflux of the highly refined Kabbalistic, Hermetic, and alchemicaltraditions. During that time magic became--at least for scholarlyadherents like Pico della Mirandola, Giordano Bruno, and JohnDee--something akin to religion. 78In the Hermetic-Kabbalistic interpretation magic had more to do withobtaining experiential knowledge of God and the celestial hierarchiesthan with particularistic goals of control and coercion--the "diggingfor vulgar gold." Como se señaló anteriormente, en la Europamedieval, el legado de la magia se transformó entre los XV y XVII porla afluencia de la muy refinada Kabbalistic, hermético, alquímico ytradiciones. Durante ese tiempo se convirtió en la magia - al menospara los académicos adherentes como Pico della Mirandola , GiordanoBruno, y John Dee - algo parecido a la religión. 78En el Hermética-Kabbalistic interpretación magia había más que ver conla obtención de conocimiento experiencial de Dios y de la jerarquíascelestes que con particularistas objetivos de control y coerción - laexcavación de vulgar oro. " BothJewish and Christian practitioners of the "high magical arts" wouldhave judged Webster's definition as applicable more to a reprehensibleform of popular or folk magic than to their own pursuits. 79By the seventeenth century this Hermetic magic had become thoroughlyintertwined with a wider reformative religious vision and a coherentfoundational mythos. Judíos y cristianos, tanto losprofesionales de la "alta artes mágicas" habría juzgado Webster'sdefinición más aplicable a una censurable forma de magia popular ofolclórica que a sus propias actividades. 79En el siglo XVII esta magia Hermética se había convertido completamenteentrelazada con una más amplia de reforma religiosa y una visióncoherente mito fundacional. Thisview asserted the human potential for divine communication, progressionto ultimate knowledge and even union or identity with God. Estepunto de vista afirmado el potencial humano para la comunicacióndivina, la progresión a final de conocimiento e incluso la identidad ola unión con Dios.

Certainlypopular magic with its less refined concerns continued to exist; and interms of pure numbers of practitioners it most likely dominated in thecommon culture. Ciertamente, con su magia populares menosrefinado preocupaciones siguen existiendo, y en términos de númerospuros de lo más probable es que los profesionales que predominan en lacultura común. ButBritish historian Keith Thomas notes the important distinction thatmust be developed between popular magic and the separate intellectualor elitist trends. Sin embargo, historiador británico KeithThomas toma nota de la importante distinción que debe desarrollarseentre la magia popular y las tendencias intelectuales o elitistas. Speaking here of developments in the seventeenth and early eighteenth century, Thomas notes: Hablando aquí de la evolución de la XVII y principios del siglo XVIII, Thomas señala:

Itwould thus be tempting to explain the practice of popular magic as thereflection of the [alchemical and Hermetic] intellectual interests ofcontemporary scientists and philosophers. Por lo tanto, seríatentador para explicar la práctica de la magia popular como el reflejode la [alquímico y hermético] intereses intelectuales de loscientíficos y filósofos contemporáneos. But such a chain of reasoning would almost certainly be mistaken. Pero esa cadena de razonamientos que casi seguramente se equivoca. Bythis period popular magic and intellectual magic were essentially twodifferent activities, overlapping at certain points, but to a largeextent carried on in virtual independence of each other. 80En este período populares magia magia e intelectual eran esencialmentedos actividades diferentes, se superponen en algunos puntos, pero engran medida llevada a cabo en virtual independencia el uno del otro. 80

What Thomas calls "intellectual magic" was of course the seventeenth-century mix of Hermeticism, Kabbalah, and alchemy. Tomás lo llama "magia intelectual" fue, por supuesto, el siglo XVII, mezcla de Hermetismo, Cábala y la alquimia. Thepoint I am making is that magic could be more and less than "magic":whatever terms one may use to define the noun, from the sixteenthcentury into the early nineteenth century it had at least two differenthistorical manifestations, each with different aspirations and lineages.El punto que quiero decir aquí es que la magia podría ser más y menosde la "magia": sea cual sea lo que uno puede utilizar para definir elnombre, desde el siglo XVI a principios del siglo XIX que había almenos dos manifestaciones históricas, cada uno con distintasaspiraciones y los linajes. Popular or folk magic with its magic world view was undoubtedly common in early nineteenth-century America. Popular o folclórica con su magia mágica visión del mundo fue, sin duda, común a principios del siglo XIX América.But there had also entered into the matrix of American religionelements of this other "intellectual" Hermetic mythos. And its worldview was much more complex.

By the dawn of the nineteenth century the Hermetic tradition had developed sub rosaseveral elements characteristic of an incipient heterodox religion,including clear restorational aspirations. From this fertile bed sprangnumerous occult fraternities and societies: societies Kabbalistic,alchemical, magical, and Masonic. And though they generally used aChristian vocabulary, the intentions they fostered could appearantithetical to orthodox Christianity. Most particularly, it was a viewof man and God intrinsically hostile to dour Puritan presumptions. 81Classic Protestant thought accepted no theogony (genesis or genealogyof God), and in orthodox judgment new divine revelation was, as MericCasaubon expressed, nothing "else but imposture or melancholy anddepraved phantasie, arising from natural causes." 82By contrast, in the Hermetic tradition there emerges a coherent andradically alternative vision which, as Joscelyn Godwin explained,

combines the practical examination of nature with a spiritual view ofthe universe as an intelligent hierarchy of beings; which draws itswisdom from all possible sources, and which sees the proper end of manas the direct knowledge of God. This kind of belief underlies the[Rosicrucian] manifestoes; it is presupposed in [Robert] Fludd's worksand in those of the alchemists; it reappears in the more esotericaspects of Freemasonry. 83

By the late eighteenth century, elements usually associated with theformation of a new religion were present in this alternative tradition:an intricate and extensive mythic framework (derived from Kabbalistic,Hermetic, alchemical, and Rosicrucian materials); an extra-canonicalcorpus of "sacred" texts (drawn from archaic Hebrew and Hermeticsources); a new symbol system (conveying esoteric meanings); detailedinitiatory and ritual formulas; a claim to lineages of ancientpriesthood; an affirmation of renewed communication with the celestialrealms; and a thoroughly articulated reformative, even millennial,aspiration for a new Adamic restoration. (See Figure 11 .)

When I speak of the Hermetic (or Hermetic-Kabbalistic) tradition in theearly nineteenth century, I mean this amalgamation of elements alongwith their underpinning Hermetic mythos. Though any backwoods rodsmandivining for buried treasures in Vermont in 1820 may have known aboutthe tradition, it would be erroneous to lump him into it or to see itnecessarily reflected in him. Yet here the distinction must be drawn:in this same general time and place there undoubtedly existedindividuals who were deeply cognizant of Hermeticism, its lore,rituals, and aspirations. And this group probably included anoccasional associate of treasure diggers. Such individuals would havelearned about the Hermetic tradition in varying degrees and fromvarious lineages (including esoteric Masonic and Rosicrucian orders),but most certainly not as a transmission of popular magic and folk lorealone.

In summary, the treasure digger's "magic world view,"the supernatural method to means, must be distinguished from the morecomplex Hermetic vision conveyed in the mix of Kabbalah, ceremonialmagic, Paracelsian medicine, Rosicrucianism, alchemical symbolism, andseveral esoteric brands of Masonry. And what a young Joseph Smith couldhave learned from a rodsman, ensconced only in a magic world view, isless important to his religious development than the kinds of ideas aHermetic initiate might have stimulated.

Joseph Smith, Hermetismo y Kabbalah

In the period before 1827 Joseph Smith probably had some passinginteraction with individuals knowledgeable of Hermeticism and Kabbalah.But to reconstruct the history of that exposure demands considerationof contexts and hypotheses tied to a thin heritage of fact: it is atype of connection that appears likely but which cannot be documentedwith certainty. The situation changes a bit after 1840. During thoselast years of Joseph's life evidences linking him to theHermetic-Kabbalistic tradition can, when placed in context, appearsubstantial. In the following discussion, I will sketch some of theevidences linking Joseph to the Hermetic tradition, both early in hisprophetic career and later in Nauvoo. And though the shading of factmay seem too light or dark, or in proportions skewed, this is a way ofdrawing Joseph Smith within his own history that I believe must beconfronted by Mormon historians. 84

Of course a question arises that lingers as a subtext to the materialthat follows and must be addressed before proceeding: If Joseph Smithhad significant interactions with the Hermetic-Kabbalistic mythos, didthey impact his religion-making vision? While it seems to me that theyprobably would or did, I also acknowledge another possibility: Despiteany apparent historical interactions, common patterns connectingSmith's vision to the Hermetic-Kabbalistic mythos may be entirelysynchronous (or parallel) rather than causal. And if synchronous, theyfurther could be classed as archetypal manifestations consistent with arecurrent type of "revelatory" experience (such as is witnessedelsewhere in the history of the tradition) or, instead, as purehappenstance.

If one is inclined to look for links, deeperlevels of complexity soon intrude. The Hermetic-Kabbalistic traditionnot only affirmed the existence of an archetypal structure accessibleto independent, personal cognition or "revelation": it sought throughcombined modalities of ritual, symbol, and myth to aid an individual'sencounter with this core reality, a reality mirrored in the celestialrealm and in the seeker's own self. Accepting that some individualsobtained these experiences, the question of causal versus synchronouslinks becomes circular: One can argue that contact with variousHermetic ideas, symbols, ceremonies, and myths could (at leastoccasionally and in the properly predisposed individual) help invoke anuminous and uniquely individual experience. The experience, thoughpersonal and self-contained, might become the substratum for creativedevelopment of further intuition and insights inherently present in theinciting mythos. Thus a tradition breeds an experience which thenreplicates anew the tradition. This whole issue recalls the questionplaguing historical studies of Gnosticism and its variousmanifestations: is the tradition conveyed through historicallyidentifiable transmissions; are various historical manifestations of"Gnostic vision" instead creations of a reborn and independent "Gnosis"imbued with similar core insights (what depth psychology callsarchetypal patterns); or are both modes of transmission, inner andouter, intrinsically coupled? To these questions I can give no answers;I offer only my intuition that they lurk behind any interpretation ofevidences "linking" Joseph Smith to Hermeticism.

D. MichaelQuinn extensively details evidences of Joseph's early contact withHermeticism, though he emphasizes the folk magical aspect. He offersthe Smith family's carefully preserved magical parchments and dagger,and the talisman Joseph carried on his person. 85One recognizes the prominent use of Hebrew on both the parchments andtalisman, although the reason for this has not been put in clearcontext by Mormon historians: the Hebrew came from Kabbalah. 86As Quinn documents, knowledge necessary for the preparation of theSmith family magical implements could have been obtained from books ofmagic available in this time and region, and such materials might havebeen acquired specifically to aid magical activities associated withtreasure seeking. Preparation for and proper performance of a magicalritual--including production of a ceremonial dagger or parchment--was,however, a lengthy and complicated venture demanding knowledge of anarcane vocabulary. The vast host of angels and spirits addressed indifferent magical rituals had specific names (again drawn fromKabbalah), elaborate magical signs, and varied functions within thenatural and celestial hierarchies. From this complexity, magic loremade it clear that there were definite existential dangers in gettingthe details wrong. It thus seems likely that in addition to informationgleaned from books, family members would have augmented their knowledgeby associations with individuals experienced in ceremonial magic andthe occult arts. In this company Joseph Smith might have first beenexposed to a person versed in the deep breadth of Hermeticism.

One individual fits this description: the "occult mentor" identified byQuinn, Dr. Luman Walter(s). Reputed to be a physician and magician (thetwo were sometimes closely associated in that age), Walter is known tohave been in Joseph's and his family's circle of acquaintances prior to1827. He was also a distant cousin of Joseph's future wife, Emma Hale. 87As Quinn notes, "Brigham Young described the unnamed New York magicianas having travel extensively through Europe to obtain `profoundlearning,'" and others identified Walter as "a physician who studiedMesmerism in Europe before meeting Joseph Smith." 88 Walter family records and legend called him "clairvoyant." 89If these statements are generally accurate, Walter had considerableknowledge of Hermetic traditions. During this period in Europe (and toa lesser degree in America) a physician with interests in Mesmer,magic, clairvoyance, and "profound learning" moved in a milieu nurturedby the legacies of Hermeticism. By definition, such a physician stoodin a tradition dominated by the medical and esoteric writings ofParacelsus, steeped in alchemy, and associated closely with Rosicrucianphilosophy. 90As an individual also interested in hidden treasures, Walter might havetaken particular note of Paracelsus' admonition on Kabbalah's import:

All of you . . . who see land beyond the horizon, who read sealed,hidden missives and books, who seek for buried treasures in the earthand in walls, you who teach so much wisdom, such high arts--rememberthat you must take unto yourselves the teachings of the cabala if youwant to accomplish all this. For the cabala builds on a truefoundation. Pray and it will be given you, knock and you will be heard,the gate will be opened to you. . . . Everything you desire will flowand be granted you. You will see into the greatest depth of the earth .. . The art of the cabala is beholden to God, it is in alliance withHim, and it is founded on the words of Christ. But if you do not followthe true doctrine of the cabala, but slip into geomancy, you will beled by that spirit which tells you nothing but lies. 91

If Walter did have contact with the young Smith, he might have sharedsome interesting ideas about the occult reformative tradition that hadfor three centuries been a force working on the creative edge of theWestern religious imagination, concepts which might have had influenceda prophetic imagination. Here is the tentative early connection to alegacy of ancient priesthoods, lost books, sacred weddings, modernseers, co-eternal matter, golden treasures, angelic messengers, rebuilttemples, dawning dispensations, and God's glorious intelligence.Perhaps Walter might even have had something to say about the story ofthe sixteen-year-old Christian Rosencreutz who journeyed to the Eastand translated the Book M, only to be rejected by the learned of hisage. This was a legacy of ideas about man and God unlike anything inthe texts of revivalism and seekerism sweeping New York's "burned-overdistrict" 92 and yet so much like the religion embraced by the prophet-to-be.

In addition to early influences from a possible occult mentor such asWalter, other eddies of the Hermetic mythos swirled near the youngJoseph Smith. Quinn notes, "Pennsylvania was the focal point ofceremonial magic in early America," and "several sources indicate thatJoseph Jr. engaged in folk magical activities during the summers of the1820s away from Palmyra, often in Pennsylvania." 93What Smith encountered in Pennsylvania may again be better termedHermeticism than folk magic; there is even some possibility that he haddirect contact with Rosicrucian ideas. German Pietists who hadimmigrated to Pennsylvania in the previous century were deeplyinfluenced by Rosicrucianism and the Kabbalistically flavored mysticismof Jacob Boehme. (See Figure 7.) This is a repeat citation) The firstAmerican Rosicrucian group had been founded on Wissahickon Creek nearPhiladelphia just before 1700 by a learned band of theosophists andGerman Pietists headed by Johannes Kelpius. In 1720 the German mysticand Pietist Johann Conrad Beissel immigrated to Pennsylvania seeking tojoin that group. He subsequently associated himself with a few of theremaining Wissahickon mystics and later organized a Rosicruciansociety, the Ephrata commune, near Lanchaster, Pennsylvania. 94Alderfer notes in his study of the movement, "Ephrata itself, though aninheritor of many strains of mysticism, was a latter-day haven ofessentially gnostic ideas and terminology." 95

The community survived into the early nineteenth century. During itspeak in the mid-eighteenth century it proselytized widely, sendingdisciples on "pilgrimages" through the surrounding countryside and eveninto New England. 96 Alchemy, Kabbalah, and perhaps Freemasonry all played roles in the mystical philosophy taught at Ephrata. 97A few tentative evidences suggesting loose association of Smith withRosicrucianism, and perhaps even some residual of the Ephrata commune,are introduced by Quinn. 98But specific contacts aside, one must recognize that the sophisticatedRosicrucian, Kabbalistic, and alchemical ideas represented at Ephratahad been quilted into Pennsylvania's esoteric lore for over one hundredyears prior to Joseph's summer visits in the 1820s. If Smith did havecontact with individuals influenced by these traditions (of which theremust have been more than a few), his knowledge of things Hermetic,Kabbalistic, and alchemical would have been augmented.

JosephSmith's possible direct exposure to Kabbalah before 1840 deservesspecific comment (I will later discuss in detail his studies inNauvoo). The role of Kabbalah in magic was pervasive enough that evenwith a curtailed involvement in ceremonial magic, Smith would haveheard of the subject. Paracelsus's admonition to treasure seekers(quoted above) represents the importance with which Kabbalisticknowledge was imbued by occultists; in fact, in the period's vocabulary"cabala" was often used as a synonym for "magic" and "occultism." ThoseChristian esotericists who knew of Kabbalah in the early nineteenthcentury would have known it principally through Christianizedinterpretations by then thoroughly amalgamated with Hermetic,alchemical and Rosicrucian notions. While an occasional Americanoccultist might have had some knowledge of Kabbalah in its originalJewish form, study at this basic level required some knowledge ofHebrew, access to original Hebrew Kabbalistic texts or the Latintranslations in the Kabbalah Denudata , and (at least in traditional view) an adept Kabbalist as guide. 99Nonetheless, within the context of prevalent transmissions, it ispossible Joseph encountered and took interest in some outline ofKabbalah. The most basic form available to him would have been simplerepresentations of the "Tree of Sefiroth " found in Hermetic works published in the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries. 100 (see Figure 2.) This depiction of the Sefirothalone could conveyed a wealth of ideas about an emanational structurein the divine life--ideas which perfused Hermetic ideas and symbols,and which were like those developed in Mormon theology. The power ofthis archetypal pattern of the Sefiroth to stimulate areligious imagination is witnessed by occasional later Christian"Kabbalistic" works, some of which appear to be almost entirely freeassociations built from meditations on this structure of the Sefiroth and devoid of any relation to traditional Jewish or Christian Kabbalistic commentaries.

In this vein, a work recently published by Mormon author Joe Sampson is interesting. 101Sampson evaluated Joseph Smith's writings, including the Book of Mormonand Doctrine and Covenants, and noted a pattern of word and conceptusage in several verses which reproduces both the common English namesand the general hierarchical structure of the Kabbalistic Tree of Sefiroth . 102While Sampson carries his argument beyond what a less intuitive studentmight discern, several of his examples deserve consideration. Andthough this Kabbalistic pattern in Smith's revelatory writings may beaccidental, it also could suggest some earlier exposure at least to theconcept of the Tree of Sefiroth . Sampson extends his thesis bysuggesting that Smith's translation of the Book of Abraham from theEgyptian papyrus was a Kabbalistic work in the classic sense. ThoughSampson's development of this argument is itself crypticallyKabbalistic, his theme again deserves scrutiny. Kabbalah was, as henotes, the tradition of prophetic interpretation. It encouraged acreative rereading of sacred texts in the quest for a return to theprimary vision which was the single source of knowledge and scripture.In nature (if not in content) Smith's translation of the Book ofMormon, his retranslation of Genesis, and his interpretation of theBook of Abraham papyruses all can be seen as expressions of the primaryinterpretive vision Kabbalah mandated from prophetic consciousness.Whether this was a reflection of Joseph's contact with Kabbalah, orjust of Joseph, remains an open question. 103 But beyond doubt, this interpretive activity fits within the evolved Hermetic-Kabbalistic vision of a true prophet's work.


 
 

José Smith y la Cabalá: La conexión oculta

Lance S. Owens


Part 3: Includes pages 166 - 194, the end of the published work. Parte 3: Incluye páginas 166 - 194, el final de la obra publicada.

El Profeta y la Francmasonería

Whateverone concludes about the varied hints of scattered early associationswith Hermeticism, Joseph Smith had well-documented connections with oneof the tradition's major legacies, Masonry. Independientementede lo que se concluye acerca de las diversas sugerencias de lasasociaciones con los principios dispersos Hermetismo, José Smith habíadocumentado bien las conexiones con la tradición de uno de losprincipales legados, la Masonería. Theprophet's associations with the Masonic tradition are thoroughlydocumented and discussed by Michael W. Homer in this issue of Dialogue .El profeta de la asociaciones masónicas con la tradición sonminuciosamente documentados y sean tratados por Michael W. Homero eneste número de Diálogo. Itis unlikely that Smith would have so fully involved himself and hischurch with the Masonic tradition if he had not sensed therein someintrinsic compatibility with his own religion-making vision. Espoco probable que Smith habría participado plenamente a fin de sí mismoy su iglesia con la tradición masónica, si no había percibido en élalgunos intrínseca compatibilidad con su propia religión de toma devisión. AsHomer demonstrates, the prophet said that Masonry was "taken frompriesthood," and his followers continued quoting that observation forfifty years after. 104It is possible that Joseph's interpretation of Masonry as a legacy ofancient priesthood was based in his own understanding of a historyextending back hundreds of years, a history entwined with the Hermeticmythos and with Kabbalah, alchemy, and Rosicrucianism. The alliance ofthis occult legacy with Masonry was well understood byesoterically-inclined Masons; assertions of such links were bandiedabout by American anti-Masonic publications in the late 1820s. 105 As noted, Joseph's own history several times touched Hermetic-Kabbalistic traditions.Demuestra que Homero, el profeta dice que la Masonería es "tomada desacerdocio", y sus seguidores continuaron citando la observación de quecincuenta años después. 104Es posible que José de la interpretación de la Masonería como un legadode la antigua sacerdocio se basaba en su propia comprensión de la unaampliación de la historia hace cientos de años, una historiaentrelazada con el mito y con Hermética Cábala, la alquimia, yRosicrucianism. La alianza oculta de este legado con la Masonería fuebien entendido por esotéricamente inclinado-Masones, las afirmacionesde esos vínculos eran de boca en boca por América anti-masónicaspublicaciones a finales de 1820. 105 Como se ha señalado, la propia historia de José en varias ocasiones tocó Hermética-Kabbalistic tradiciones. One could argue that he even interacted with them in a creative, visionary sense. Se podría argumentar que incluso interactuó con ellos en un creativo, visionario sentido.

Joseph'scontacts with the Hermetic mythos were sufficient to generate vagueassumptions about Masonry's earlier roots, and these assumptions couldhave been an historical subtext to his remarks about Masonry being aremnant of ancient priesthood. Interestingly, modern historicalexamination of the occult tradition suggests a shadow of truth inJoseph's statement: Kabbalah and Hermeticism, as representatives of ahistorical stream of occult knowledge (or as reservoirs of Gnosticism)did claim ancient lineages of "priesthood." José de loscontactos con el mito Hermética son suficientes para generar vagassuposiciones sobre la Masonería anteriores raíces, y estas hipótesispodría haber sido un subtexto histórico a sus observaciones acerca dela Masonería es un vestigio del antiguo sacerdocio. Interesante ymoderno estudio de la historia oculta tradición sugiere una sombra dela verdad en la declaración de Joseph: Hermetismo y Cábala, comorepresentantes de una corriente histórica de conocimiento oculto (ocomo reservas de Gnosticismo) hizo antigua reivindicación de loslinajes "sacerdocio". Joseph had every reason to take those claims seriously, as do historians today, albeit within a narrower interpretive context.Joseph tenía todos los motivos para tomar en serio las reclamaciones,al igual que los historiadores de hoy, aunque dentro de un contextointerpretativo más estrecho. In this light, Joseph's connection to Masonry takes on several different shades of meaning. En este sentido, José de la conexión a la Masonería tiene varios matices de significado.

Theubiquitous influence of Kabbalah upon the occult traditions of thenineteenth century has been stressed, but its specific import inMasonry requires repeated emphasis. La influencia omnipresentede la Cabalá a las tradiciones ocultas del siglo XIX se ha destacado,pero su importación específica en Albañilería requiere énfasisrepetidas. Notedhistorian of occultism Arthur Edward Waite suggested in his 1923encyclopedia of Freemasonry that much of the "great" and"incomprehensible" heart of Masonry came from Kabbalah, "the SecretTradition of Israel." 106He finds such important Masonic symbols as the Lost Word, the Temple ofSolomon, the pillars Jachin and Boaz, the concept of theMaster-Builder, and restoration of Zion, all derived from the lore ofKabbalah. Tomó nota de ocultismo historiador Arthur Edward Waitesugirió en 1923 su enciclopedia de la Francmasonería que gran parte dela "gran" e "incomprensible" corazón de la Masonería ha venido de laCabalá, "el secreto de la tradición de Israel." 106Él considera tan importantes como los símbolos masónicos Perdidapalabra, el Templo de Salomón, los pilares Jachin y Booz, el conceptode la Master Builder, y la restauración de Sión, todos los derivados dela sabiduría de la Cabalá. Theorganizer of Scottish Rite Freemasonry in America, Albert Pike,manifested a similar sentiment and indexed over seventy entries to thesubject of Kabbalah in his classic nineteenth-century study, Morals and Dogma of the Ancient and Accepted Scottish Rite of Freemasonry. 107Though Pike's work was published in 1871, his views reflected lorealready established in Masonry during the period of Joseph Smith'sMasonic initiations three decades earlier. El organizador de laFrancmasonería en el Rito Escocés América, Albert Pike, que semanifiesta un sentimiento similar e indexado más de setenta entradas altema de la Cabalá en su clásico del siglo XIX el estudio, la moral y el dogma del Antiguo y Aceptado Rito Escocés de la Francmasonería. 107A pesar de Pike's trabajo fue publicado en 1871, refleja sus opinionestradición ya establecida en la Masonería durante el período de JoséSmith de la iniciación masónica de tres décadas antes. Indeed,one of the earliest documentary mentions of Masonry appearing in 1691specifically linked it with these Jewish traditions. 108De hecho, una de las primeras menciones documentales de la Masonería en1691 aparecen específicamente relacionada con estas tradiciones judías.108

As Homer notes, the Scottish Rite developed by Pike was an evolution of the eighteenth-century French Masonic Rite de Perfection , which in several degrees was influenced by Kabbalah. 109Kabbalah's importance in Masonic lore is also witnessed by Maritnez dePasqually and his late-eighteenth century Kabbalistic-Masonicrestoration of ancient priesthood in the Order of Les Elus Cohen . Como señala Homero, el Rito Escocés Pike fue desarrollado por una evolución del siglo XVIII francés Masónica del Rito de Perfección, que en varios grados fue influenciado por la Cabalá. 109Cabalá en la importancia de la tradición masónica es también testigo deMaritnez de Pasqually y su tardía siglo XVIII Kabbalistic-masónicas dela antigua restauración del sacerdocio en la Orden de Les Elus Cohen. Muchof this Kabbalistic influence upon Masonry may have come fromRosicrucianism (again recalling their close association), infused as itwas with alchemical and Kabbalistic symbolism. Gran parte deesta influencia en la Masonería Kabbalistic que puedan proceder deRosicrucianism (una vez más recordando su estrecha asociación), como lofue infundido con Kabbalistic y simbolismo alquímico. But some additional influence might be attributed to esoteric sources like the Frankist movement. Pero algunas influencia puede atribuirse a fuentes esotéricas como el Frankist movimiento. TheFrankist--followers of Jacob Frank, and successors to theKabbalistically inclined Sabbatean heresy--had become active in CentralEuropean Masonic organizations in the late eighteenth century. 110Given the wide diffusion of a Christianized and Rosicrucian version ofKabbalah into Masonry, Joseph Smith probably heard something about thetradition during the course of his almost twenty-year association withMasons and Freemasonry. El Frankist - seguidores de Jacob Frank,y sucesores de la herejía Kabbalistically inclinado sabateano - se haconvertido en activo en las organizaciones masónicas de Europa Centrala finales del siglo XVIII. 110Dada la amplia difusión de una versión cristianizados y rosacruces dela Cabalá en la Masonería, Joseph Smith oído algo acerca de latradición en el curso de sus casi veinte años de asociación con losMasones y la Francmasonería.

Itmight be argued that these occult Masonic inclinations were all part ofa sophisticated, esoteric form of European Masonry foreign to the worldof frontier America. Se podría argumentar que estasinclinaciones masónicas ocultas eran parte de un complejo, la formaesotérica de la Masonería extranjera al mundo de la frontera de EstadosUnidos. Tothe contrary--and though not yet fully investigated--there are severalreasons to believe that what Joseph Smith encountered in Nauvoo was anesoteric interpretation of Masonry. Por el contrario - y aunquetodavía no plenamente investigado - existen varias razones para creerque lo que José Smith fue encontrado en Nauvoo una interpretaciónesotérica de la Masonería. Asmentioned earlier, between the mid-eighteenth and the beginnings of thenineteenth century a multitude of occult orders rose from Masonry.Como se mencionó anteriormente, entre el XVIII y mediados de loscomienzos del siglo XIX un gran número de pedidos aumentó de ocultismoMasonería. Each of these tended to develop its own interrelated system of symbolic ceremonies for conveying distinct esoteric visions.Cada uno de estos tienden a desarrollar su propio sistemainterrelacionado de ceremonias simbólicas para transmitir diferentesvisiones esotéricas. Thedifferent rites also often claimed variant "authentic" Masonic origins:in ancient Egyptian mysteries; in the lineages of the medieval KnightsTemplar; in Kabbalistic transmissions; and inHermetic-alchemical-Rosicrucian traditions. Los diferentes ritossostiene también a menudo que la variante "auténticos" orígenesmasónicos: misterios en la antigüedad egipcia, y en los linajes de losmedievales Caballeros Templarios, en Kabbalistic transmisiones y enhermético-alquímicos-rosacruces tradiciones. RobertMacoy's 1872 encyclopedia of Freemasonry cataloged over forty-fivedistinct systems of Masonic rites developed during the period from 1750to 1820. 111In retrospect one might suggest that during this unusual epoch acreatively elite group of individuals coming from many sectors ofsociety encountered in the Masonic mythos a new medium for expressingtheir visions. Robert Macoy del 1872 enciclopedia de laFrancmasonería catalogado más de cuarenta y cinco sistemas diferentesde los ritos masónicos desarrollado durante el período comprendidoentre 1750 a 1820. 111En retrospectiva uno puede sugerir que durante esta época un inusualgrupo de élite creativa de las personas procedentes de muchos sectoresde la sociedad surgidas en el mito masónico un nuevo medio paraexpresar sus visiones. Thoughbasic York rite (or Blue Lodge) Masonry with its three degrees was acommon grounding for most of these, around that foundation appearedmany layerings of esoteric accretions. Aunque rito York básicos(o Logia Azul) Masonería con sus tres grados es una tierra común parala mayoría de ellas, unas bases que parecían muchos layerings deañadidos esotérico. Withthe tools of allegory, symbol, and imagination, and in a formatsuggesting great mysterious antiquity, men touched by the Masonicmythos began producing new "ancient" rituals. Con lasherramientas de la alegoría, símbolo, y la imaginación, y en un formatomuy misterioso que sugiere la antigüedad, los hombres afectados por elmito Masónica comenzó a producir nuevos "antigua" rituales. Oneis reminded of Ireneaus' complaint about the Gnostics responding to thecreative muse of their times: "every one of them generates somethingnew, day by day, according to his ability; for no one is deemed mature,who does not develop . . . some mighty fiction." 112Uno de ellos es recordado Ireneaus de denuncia acerca de los gnósticosen respuesta a la creatividad de su tiempo: "cada uno de ellos generaalgo nuevo, día a día, de acuerdo con su capacidad, para que nadie seconsidera maduro, que no se desarrolla.. . ficción algunos poderosos. "112

JohnC. Bennett, one of the more enigmatic figures in Mormon history, wasthe indisputable impetus to Masonry's introduction in Nauvoo.John C. Bennett, una de las más enigmáticas figuras de Mormón historia,era el indiscutible impulso a la introducción de la Masonería en Nauvoo. Bennett's mercurial career among the Mormons has fascinated and bewildered historians. Bennett del mercurial carrera entre los mormones ha fascinado a historiadores y desconcertado. Seemingly from out of the blue, Bennett appeared in Nauvoo and was baptized into the Mormon church in the summer of 1840. Aparentemente desde fuera del azul, apareció en Nauvoo Bennett y fue bautizado en la iglesia mormona en el verano de 1840. Withinless than a year he became mayor of Nauvoo, chancellor of theUniversity of Nauvoo, major general of the Nauvoo Legion, AssistantPresident of the Mormon church, and an intimate friend and counselor toJoseph Smith. En menos de un año se convirtió en alcalde deNauvoo, rector de la Universidad de Nauvoo, mayor general de la LegiónNauvoo, Presidente Adjunto de la iglesia mormona, y un íntimo amigo yconsejero a José Smith. InJune 1841, less than three months after becoming Assistant President,he began attempts to organize a Mormon Masonic Lodge. But the Masonryhe brought to Nauvoo had several unusual occult aspects. Enjunio de 1841, menos de tres meses después de convertirse en PresidenteAdjunto, comenzó los intentos de organizar un Mormón Masonic Lodge. Sinembargo, la Masonería se había señalado a Nauvoo inusual oculta variosaspectos. Lessthan a year later, he made an equally dramatic exit, excommunicatedamid a flurry of allegations suggesting widespread sexual improprieties.Menos de un año más tarde, hizo una igualmente espectacular salida,excomulgado en medio de un aluvión de denuncias de irregularidadessugiriendo sexual generalizada.

Bythe time he arrived in Nauvoo, the thirty-five-year-old Bennett hadattended Athens state university; studied medicine with his uncle, theprominent frontier doctor and Ohio historian, Dr. Por el momentoen que llegó a Nauvoo, el treinta y cinco años de edad Bennett habíaasistido a la Universidad Estatal de Atenas, estudió medicina con sutío, el prominente médico y Ohio frontera historiador, el Dr. SamuelHildreth; helped to found educational institutions in West Virginia,Indiana, and Ohio; organized at Willoughby College the medical schooland served as first dean and professor of gynecology and children'sdiseases; been a licensed preacher in Ohio; been appointed brigadiergeneral of the Illinois Invincible Dragoons; and in 1840 becomequartermaster general of Illinois state militia. 113He had also apparently abandoned a wife and children, been ejected fromat least one Masonic Lodge for unbecoming behavior, and been accused ofselling medical degrees. Samuel Hildreth, ayudó a fundarinstituciones educativas de West Virginia, Indiana y Ohio; WilloughbyCollege organizó en la escuela de medicina y sirvió como primer decanoy profesor de ginecología y las enfermedades infantiles; sido unpredicador con licencia en Ohio; sido nombrado general de brigada de laInvencible Dragones de Illinois, y en 1840 en la partida de provisionesgenerales de la milicia estatal de Illinois. 113que al parecer también había abandonado una esposa y niños, han sidoexpulsados de por lo menos una Logia Masónica de conducta impropia, yha sido acusado de vender títulos médicos. Bennett'sinterests, including religion, medicine, the military, and Masonry,suggest a person inclined towards investigating the more esotericaspects of Masonry. Bennett, sus intereses, incluida lareligión, la medicina, los militares, y la Masonería, sugieren unapersona inclinada hacia la investigación de los aspectos más esotéricosde la Masonería. Hisapparent libidinous proclivity may also have aroused his curiosityabout unorthodox sexual practices associated with more creative Masonicrites. Su aparente proclividad libidinoso puede también handespertado su curiosidad acerca de las prácticas sexuales pocoortodoxas asociadas con los ritos masónicos más creativos.

Giventhe relation between Bennett and Smith, Bennett probably hadcommunicated some Masonic ideas to Smith before petitions were made forthe formation of a Nauvoo Masonic Lodge in mid-1841. Habidacuenta de la relación entre Bennett y Smith, Bennett probablementehabía comunicado algunas ideas masónicas a Smith antes de laspeticiones se hicieron para la formación de una Logia Masónica Nauvoo amediados de 1841. That the temple endowment ceremony developed by Smith in May 1842 was influenced by Masonry cannot escape notice.Que el templo de dotación ceremonia desarrollada por Smith en mayo de1842 fue influenciado por la Masonería no puede escapar de aviso. Butbeyond the temple endowment, several other components were developingin Joseph's vision during this period that sounded an even strangerresonance with ideas from esoteric Masonic quarters. Pero másallá de la dotación templo, otros componentes en el desarrollo de lavisión de José durante este período en el que sonaba una extrañaresonancia con las ideas de esotérico masónico trimestres. Two stand out: organization of an "Order of Illuminati" or political Kingdom of God, and introduction of "Spiritual Wifery." 114 Dos: la organización de una "Orden de los Illuminati" o política del Reino de Dios, y la introducción de "Wifery Espiritual." 114

Bennettclaimed that in a revelation dated 7 April 1841--the day before he wasmade Assistant President of the church--Joseph Smith personallycommissioned him to establish an "Order of the Illuminati" in Nauvoo. 115Though the organization was not then specifically called by this name,a revelation received by Joseph on 7 April 1842 commanded formation of"The Kingdom of God and His Laws with the keys and powers thereof andjudgment in the hands of his servants." 116 More commonly called the Council of Fifty, the organization finally took form in March 1844.Bennett sostuvo que la revelación en una fecha 7 de abril de 1841 - eldía antes de que él se hizo Presidente Adjunto de la Iglesia - JoséSmith le encargó personalmente de establecer una "Orden de losIlluminati" en Nauvoo. 115A pesar de que la organización no fue específicamente a continuación,llamado por este nombre, una revelación recibida por José el 7 de abrilde 1842 al mando de la formación de "El Reino de Dios y Sus leyes conlas claves y las competencias de éstos y de la sentencia en manos desus siervos." 116 Más comúnmente se llama el Consejo de los Cincuenta, por último, la organización tomó forma en marzo de 1844. Josephwas soon thereafter ordained King of the Kingdom, a ritual ofcoronation also performed for each of the next two presidents of thechurch, Brigham Young and John Taylor. Joseph fue ordenado pocodespués el Rey del Reino, un ritual de coronación realizado tambiénpara cada uno de los dos próximos presidentes de la iglesia, BrighamYoung y John Taylor. Whether Bennett got the idea for an order of Illuminati from Smith, or Smith from Bennett, is open to argument. Bennett si tengo la idea de un orden de Illuminati de Smith, o de Smith Bennett, está abierto a discusión. But Ebenezer Robinson, editor of the Nauvoo Times and Seasonsuntil February 1842 and a contemporary observer, thought the stimulusarrived with Bennett: "Heretofore the church had strenuously opposedsecret societies such as Freemasons . . . but after Dr. Bennett cameinto the Church a great change of sentiment seemed to take place." 117 Subsequent history links the idea with Bennett. Ebenezer Pero Robinson, editor de la Nauvoo Temporadas Times yhasta febrero de 1842 y un observador contemporáneo, a través delestímulo llegaron con Bennett: "Hasta ahora la iglesia se opusoenérgicamente había sociedades secretas como la masonería... Perodespués de que el Dr. Bennett entró en la Iglesia un gran sentimientode cambio parece tener lugar. "117 Tras la historia con la idea de enlaces Bennett. AfterSmith's death, Bennett sought out the charismatic claimant to Smith'sprophetic mantle, James Strang, and convinced him to establish an"Order of the Illuminati." 118Después de la muerte de Smith, Bennett buscado el carismáticoreclamante Smith manto profético, James Strang, y lo convenció de crearuna "Orden de los Illuminati." 118

TheCouncil of Fifty in Nauvoo manifest a distinctly Masonic character, andMasonic ceremonial elements were incorporated in the council's meetings.El Consejo de cincuenta en Nauvoo manifiesto claramente un caráctermasónico, masónicas y se incorporaron elementos ceremoniales, en lasreuniones del Consejo. A similar tenor emerged in Strang's Order of the Illuminati. El mismo tenor Strang surgido en la Orden de los Illuminati. Itwas only a few months after the claimed revelation commissioning him toorganize the "Illuminati" at Nauvoo that Bennett initiated efforts toform the Masonic lodge. Fue sólo unos meses después de lasupuesta revelación le encargo de organizar los "Illuminati" en NauvooBennett que inició las gestiones para formar la logia masónica. ButMormon historians have yet to specifically explored implications ofanother fact: both the name given by Bennett for the organization,"Order of the Illuminati," and the political concept embodied by theorganization had a clear Masonic heritage. 119The parallel is so close that one wonders whether Bennett might havebrought this and other more esoteric Masonic concepts with him intoNauvoo. Mormón, pero los historiadores aún no han exploradoespecíficamente las consecuencias de otro hecho: tanto el nombre dadopor Bennett para la organización, "Orden de los Illuminati," y elconcepto político consagrado por la organización tenía una claraMasónica patrimonio. 119El paralelismo es tan cerca que uno se pregunta si Bennett podría haberllevado este y otros conceptos más esotérico Masónica con él en Nauvoo. At about this same time the practice of "Spiritual wifery" or plural marriage was also introduced. Aproximadamente en ese mismo tiempo la práctica de la "wifery espiritual" o en plural, también se introdujo el matrimonio. Bennettmade several exaggerated claims in his later exposés about libertinesexual practices, claiming the women of Nauvoo were inducted into threeritual orders based on the sexual favors expected of them.Bennett hizo varias afirmaciones exageradas en su posterior libertinorevelaciones sobre las prácticas sexuales, alegando que las mujeres deNauvoo se inducida en tres órdenes de rituales sobre la base de losfavores sexuales se espera de ellos. Suchclaims are not tenable, but nonetheless recent historians have notedthe apparent association of the Relief Society with Masonry.Esas reclamaciones no son sostenibles, pero, no obstante, loshistoriadores recientes han señalado la aparente asociación de laSociedad de Socorro con la Masonería. AndBennett's more slanderous claims aside, it is a fact that the femaleleaders of the Relief Society in Nauvoo were at one time all wives ofJoseph Smith. Whatever the actual relationship to the practices inNauvoo, Masonic lodges had existed which did indulge in such practices,the most specific example being Cagliostro's Egyptian rite. 120By all reports, Bennett would have intimate interest in this sort ofMasonry--or this sort of Mormonism--and it would be hard to imagine himnot encouraging Joseph's ideas about new forms of ritual marriage.Y Bennett más calumniosas las reclamaciones de lado, es un hecho quelas mujeres líderes de la Sociedad de Socorro en Nauvoo fueron de unasola vez todas las esposas de José Smith. Sea cual sea la relación conlas prácticas en Nauvoo, logias masónicas que no había existido ensatisfacer tales prácticas, la más específica ejemplo Cagliostro delrito egipcio. 120En todos los informes, habría Bennett íntimo interés en este tipo deAlbañilería - o en este tipo de Mormonismo - y sería difícil imaginarque él no es alentadora José ideas sobre nuevas formas del ritual delmatrimonio.

Inthis context, another question lingers: Is it possible Bennett'smeteoric rise to prominence in Nauvoo was related to some unsuspectedMasonic factor? En este contexto, otra pregunta persiste: ¿Esposible Bennett del meteórico ascenso a la prominencia en Nauvoo estabarelacionada con algunos factores insospechados Masónica? Didhe arrive in Nauvoo claiming independent esoteric lineages of Hermeticor Masonic priesthood, or some ancient and occultknowledge--declarations that Joseph, because of prior life experiencesand associations, choose to honor? ¿Se llegará a Nauvoo alegandoesotérico linajes independientes de Hermética o Masónica sacerdocio, oalgún antiguo y oculto conocimiento - las declaraciones que José,debido a las experiencias de la vida antes y asociaciones, para honrara elegir? ThoughBennett finally may have been nothing but a talented charlatan, it mustbe granted that a complex legacy of spiritual insight was embedded inMasonic rituals, myths, and symbols; they had a history and a lineagereaching back many centuries into Hermetic, Kabbalistic, and alchemicalGnosis. Bennett, aunque finalmente puede haber sido nada más queun charlatán con talento, debe concederse que un complejo legado de lavisión espiritual estaba implícito en los rituales masónicos, los mitosy símbolos, que tenía una historia y un linaje que se remonta muchossiglos en Hermética, Kabbalistic, Gnosis y alquímico. John C. John C. Bennett may have brought something more than Blue Lodge Masonry to Nauvoo. Bennett puede haber traído algo más que a la Masonería Azul Lodge Nauvoo. And, regardless of his true intentions, what he brought may have been useful to a prophet. Y, con independencia de sus verdaderas intenciones, lo que trajo a mayo han sido útiles a un profeta.

InNauvoo, in 1842 and after, I suggest Joseph Smith encountered areservoir of myths, symbols, and ideas conveyed in the context ofMasonry but with complex and more distant origins in the Westernesoteric tradition. En Nauvoo, en 1842 y después, sugiero JoséSmith encontró un reservorio de mitos, símbolos, e ideas transmitidasen el contexto de la Masonería, pero más complejo y con orígenes en latradición esotérica occidental. Theyapparently resonated with Smith's own visions, experiences modulatinghis spiritual life from the time of his earliest intuitions of aprophetic calling. He responded to this stimulus with a tremendous,creative outpouring--the type of creative response Gnostic myth andsymbol were meant to evoke, and evidently had evoked across amillennium of history. Aparentemente Smith resonó con propiasvisiones, experiencias de la modulación de su vida espiritual a partirde la fecha de sus primeras intuiciones de una llamada profética.Respondió a este estímulo con una tremenda, efusión creativa - el tipode respuesta creativa Gnóstico mito y símbolo se pretende evocar, yevidentemente había evocado a través de un milenio de la historia. But,leaving Masonry, there was still another, more primary transmission ofthis esoteric tradition that would touched Joseph's creativeimagination during his last years in Nauvoo. Pero, dejando a laMasonería, todavía queda otro, más fundamental de transmisión de estatradición esotérica que tocó José imaginación creadora durante susúltimos años en Nauvoo.

José Smith y  la Cabalá en Nauvoo

By1842 Joseph Smith most likely had touched the subject of Kabbalah inseveral ways and versions, even if such contacts remain beyond easydocumentation. En 1842 José Smith más probable es que habíatocado el tema de la Cabalá en varias formas y versiones, aun cuandodichos contactos siguen más allá de la documentación fácil. During Joseph's final years in Nauvoo, however, his connection with Kabbalah becomes more concrete. José durante los últimos años en Nauvoo, sin embargo, su relación con la Cabalá se hace más concreta. Inthe spring of 1841 there apparently arrived in Nauvoo an extraordinarylibrary of Kabbalistic writings belonging to a European Jew and convertto Mormonism who evidently new Kabbalah and its principal written works.En la primavera de 1841 hay al parecer llegó a Nauvoo unaextraordinaria biblioteca de Kabbalistic escritos pertenecientes a unJudio y convertir al nuevo Mormonismo que evidentemente la Cabalá y susprincipales obras escritas. This man, Alexander Neibaur, would soon become the prophet's friend and companion. Este hombre, Alexander Neibaur, pronto se convertiría en el profeta del amigo y compañero.

Neibaurhas received little detailed study by Mormon historians, and hisknowledge of Kabbalah has earned only an occasional passing footnote inMormon historical work. 121Neibaur was born in Alsace-Lorraine in 1808, but during his laterchildhood the family apparently returned to their original home ineastern Prussia (now part of Poland). Neibaur ha recibido pocoestudio detallado de Mormón historiadores, y su conocimiento de laCabalá ha ganado sólo una nota a pie de página en el paso ocasional deMormón obra histórica. 121Neibaur nació en Alsacia-Lorena en 1808, pero más tarde durante suinfancia la familia al parecer regresó a su estado original casa en eleste de Prusia (ahora parte de Polonia). Hisfather, Nathan Neibaur, was a physician and dentist, who family sourcesclaim, was a personal physician to the Napoleon Bonapart and whoseskill as a linguist made him of "great value" to Napoleon as aninterpreter (claims perhaps inflated by posterity). Su padre,Nathan Neibaur, fue un médico y un dentista, fuentes afirman que lafamilia, era un médico personal a la Bonapart Napoleón y cuya habilidadcomo lingüista le hizo de "gran valor" a Napoleón como un intérprete(tal vez exageradas reclamaciones por la posteridad) . Like his father, Alexander became fluent in several languages, including French, German, Hebrew, and later, English.Al igual que su padre, Alexander se convirtió en dominio de variosidiomas, incluyendo francés, alemán, hebreo, y más tarde, Inglés. He also read Latin and Greek. También leer latín y griego. Familytradition claims that as the first child and eldest son, his fatherwished him to become a rabbi, and that the young Neibaur was begun inrabbincal training. Afirma que la tradición familiar como elprimer hijo y el hijo mayor, su padre le deseó convertirse en unrabino, y que los jóvenes Neibaur se inició en rabbincal formación. However, at age seventeen he instead entered the University of Berlin to study dentistry, and completed his studies around 1828.Sin embargo, a los diecisiete años que entró en lugar de la Universidadde Berlín para estudiar odontología, y completó sus estudios en torno a1828. Sometime shortly afterwards, he converted to Christianity and migrated to Preston, England. En algún momento poco después, se convirtió al cristianismo y emigraron a Preston, Inglaterra. There he established a dental practice and married in 1833. Allí se estableció una práctica odontológica y se casó en 1833. In mid-summer 1837, Heber C. Kimball, Orson Hyde, and Joseph Fielding arrived in Preston. A mediados de verano de 1837, Heber C. Kimball, Orson Hyde, y Joseph Fielding llegado en Preston. Neibaurhad been troubled by several dreams about a mysterious book, and hisfirst question for Joseph Smith's apostles was whether they had a"book" for him--which of course they did. Neibaur se habíapreocupado por varios sueños acerca de un misterioso libro, y suprimera pregunta de Joseph Smith apóstoles era si tenían un "libro"para él - que por supuesto lo hicieron. He was baptized with his family the next spring. Fue bautizado con su familia la próxima primavera. On5 February 1841 they departed for Nauvoo, arriving in Quincy, Illinois,on 17 April. Four days later Neibaur met Joseph Smith, and on 26 Aprilhe notes in his journal, "went to work for J. Smith." El 5 defebrero de 1841 se partió de Nauvoo, que llegan en Quincy, Illinois, el17 de abril. Cuatro días más tarde se reunió Neibaur José Smith, y el26 de abril, señala en su diario, "se fue a trabajar para J. Smith". Twoday later he acquired a quarter-acre lot in Nauvoo, and on 1 June movedhis family into their newly complete Nauvoo home on Water Street, a fewblocks from Joseph Smith's residence. 122Dos días más tarde adquirió un cuarto de acre mucho en Nauvoo, y el 1de junio se trasladó a su familia en su nuevo hogar en Nauvoo completaWater Street, a pocas cuadras de la residencia de José Smith. 122

Whereand how Neibaur first came in contact with Kabbalah remains a mystery,though a careful evaluation of his history and personal travels offersa few hints. ¿Dónde y cómo Neibaur llegó por primera vez encontacto con la Cabalá sigue siendo un misterio, aunque una evaluacióncuidadosa de su historia personal y viajes ofrece algunas pistas. Givenhis father's position, his childhood in western Poland, his studies inBerlin and his subsequent conversion to Christianity, some contact witha reservoir of Kabbalistic knowledge among Sabbatean or Frankist Jewsshould be considered. 123If he did indeed undertake rabbical studies in Poland prior to hisuniversity education, he could not have avoided some exposure to thesubject. Habida cuenta de la posición de su padre, su infancia,en el oeste de Polonia, sus estudios en Berlín y su posteriorconversión al cristianismo, algún tipo de contacto con un depósito deconocimientos entre Kabbalistic sabateano o Frankist Judios debe serconsiderado. 123Si, efectivamente, rabbical realizar estudios en Polonia antes de a sueducación universitaria, no pudo evitarse la exposición a algunos eltema. That Neibaur brought a knowledge of Kabbalah to Nauvoo has been mentioned in several studies of the period. Neibaur que trajo el conocimiento de la Cabalá a Nauvoo ha sido mencionada en varios estudios de la época. Forinstance, Newel and Avery note in their biography of Emma Smith,"Through Alexander Neibaur, Joseph Smith had access to ancient Jewishrites called cabalism at the same time he claimed to be translating thepapyri from the Egyptian mummies [which became his Book of Abraham]." 124That he not only knew something of Kabbalah, but apparently possessed acollection of original Jewish Kabbalistic works in Nauvoo, is howeverdocumented in material almost totally overlooked by Mormon historians.Por ejemplo, Newel y Avery nota en su biografía de Emma Smith, "Através de Alexander Neibaur, José Smith tuvo acceso a los antiguosritos judíos llamado cabalism al mismo tiempo que afirmaba ser latraducción de los papiros de la momias egipcias [que se convirtió en suLibro de Abraham]. "124que no sólo sabía algo de la Cabalá, pero al parecer poseía unacolección de obras originales judía Kabbalistic en Nauvoo, es, sinembargo, documentado en el material casi totalmente ignorados por loshistoriadores Mormón.

In June 1843, Neibaur published in Times and Seasons a short piece entitled "The Jews." En junio de 1843, publicado en Neibaur Times y Temporadas un pedazo corto titulado "La Judios". The work ran in two installments, in the issues of 1 June and 15 June. El trabajo corrió en dos plazos, en las cuestiones de 1 de junio y el 15 de junio. As to why he wrote this piece, he states only that his effort was inspired by a talk he had heard Joseph Smith present. 125 His essay deals ostensibly with the concept of resurrection held by the Jews.En cuanto a por qué escribió esta pieza, sólo dice que su esfuerzo seinspiró en una conferencia que había oído de José Smith presente. 125 Su ensayo trata ostensiblemente con el concepto de poder de la resurrección Judios. What he discusses for the most part is, however, the Kabbalist concept of gilgul, the transmigration and rebirth of souls. 126The essay is interesting not because of his comments on resurrection,but because of his repeated citations of classic Jewish Kabbalistictexts. Lo que analiza en su mayor parte es, sin embargo, el concepto Kabbalist de gilgul, el renacimiento y la transmigración de las almas. 126El ensayo es interesante no por sus comentarios sobre la resurrección,pero debido a sus repetidas citas de textos clásicos judíos Kabbalistic. In the course of his four-page piece, Neibaur cites over two dozen texts and authors. En el curso de su pieza de cuatro páginas, Neibaur cita más de dos docenas de textos y autores. Of the citations I have been able to identify, at least ten are to Kabbalistic authors or works. 127 The tone of the entire piece, and the authoritative use of Kabbalistic materials, suggests Neibaur's respect for Kabbalah. De las citas que he podido identificar, por lo menos diez son Kabbalistic a los autores o de obras. 127 El tono de toda la pieza, y el uso autorizado de los materiales Kabbalistic, sugiere Neibaur del respeto de la Cabalá.

Neibaur'snotations to these Medieval and Renaissance Jewish works illustratesthat he probably both possessed the texts and had a general knowledgeof their contents. Neibaur de anotaciones a estos judía medievaly renacentista ilustra obras que probablemente ambos poseen los textosy tenían un conocimiento general de su contenido. Althoughtransliterations of Hebrew into English remain variable even in modernpublications, Neibaur's renderings into English of the titles andauthors cited are fairly consistent and accurate to the original Hebrew.Aunque transliteraciones del hebreo en Inglés siguen siendo variable,incluso en las publicaciones modernas, Neibaur de versiones en Inglésde los títulos y autores citados son bastante consistentes y precisoscon el original hebreo. The general precision of his numerous citations suggest Neibaur had access to the works he quoted. 128Included among his citations are several "classic" Kabbalistictexts--the most important Jewish Kabbalistic manuscripts circulatedbetween the fourteenth and seventeenth centuries--works such as the Zohar, Midrash Ha-Neelam, Menorat ha Ma'or, Emek ha-Melekh, and the 'Avodat ha-Kodesh, as well as a few rarer documents. En general, la precisión de sus numerosas citas sugieren Neibaur tuvo acceso a las obras citadas. 128Entre sus citas son varios "clásicos" Kabbalistic textos - los másimportantes manuscritos judíos Kabbalistic distribuido entre las XIV yXVII - obras como el Zohar, Midrash Ha-Neelam, Menorat ha Ma'or, Emek ha-Melekh, y el 'Avodat ha-Kodesh, así como algunos documentos más raros. Much of the material he cites was available only in Hebrew, and to this date has not been translated and published. Gran parte del material que se cita sólo está disponible en hebreo, y hasta la fecha no se ha traducido y publicado. Byany standard, these were unusual works to possess on the Americanfrontier, and certainly an extraordinary collection of texts to befound in the prophet Joseph's Nauvoo. Por cualquier norma, estasobras fueron inusual de poseer en la frontera americana y, sin duda,una extraordinaria colección de textos que se encuentran en el profetaJosé Nauvoo.

JosephSmith and Alexander Neibaur were frequent associates. Neibaur had beenengaged by Joseph a few days after his arrival in Nauvoo in April 1841.José Smith y Alexander Neibaur eran frecuentes asociados. Neibaurhabían sido contratados por José algunos días después de su llegada enabril de Nauvoo en 1841. Duringthe last months of the prophet's life, both his and Neibaur's diariesindicate that Neibaur read with and tutored Smith in Hebrew and German.129Given this friendly relationship, the interests of the prophet, and thebackground of Neibaur--and perhaps even the books in Neibaur'slibrary--it seems inconceivable that discussions of Kabbalah did nottake place. Durante los últimos meses de la vida del profeta, ysus dos Neibaur de diarios indican que Neibaur leer tutelados y conSmith en hebreo y alemán. 129Teniendo en cuenta esta relación de amistad, los intereses del profeta,y el fondo de Neibaur - y quizás incluso la libros en la biblioteca deNeibaur - parece inconcebible que los debates de la Cabalá no se llevóa cabo. Kabbalah was the mystical tradition of Judaism, the tradition which claimed to be custodian of the secrets God revealed to Adam. Cábala es la tradición mística del judaísmo, la tradición que decía ser custodio de los secretos de Dios revelada a Adán. Thesesecrets were occultly conveyed by the oral tradition of Kabbalahthroughout the ages--so it was claimed--until finally finding writtenexpression in the Zohar and the commentaries of the medieval Kabbalists, books Neibaur possessed.Estos secretos occultly fueron transmitidas por la tradición oral de laCabalá a través del tiempo - por lo que se alegó - hasta que finalmentela búsqueda de la expresión escrita en el Zohar y los comentarios de la medieval Kabbalists, libros Neibaur poseía. Kabbalah was the custodian of an occult re-reading of Genesis and the traditions of Enoch, it contained the secrets of Moses. La Cabalá es el custodio de una oculta relectura del Génesis y las tradiciones de Enoc, que contiene los secretos de Moisés. Andit was a subject that Joseph Smith had probably already crossed indifferent versions several times in his life. Can anyone familiar withthe history and personality of Joseph Smith--the prophet who restoredthe secret knowledge and rituals conveyed to Adam, translated the worksof Abraham, Enoch, and Moses, and retranslated Genesis--question thathe would have been interested in the original version of this Jewishoccult tradition? Y fue un tema que probablemente José Smith yahabía cruzado en diferentes versiones varias veces en su vida. ¿Puedealguien familiarizado con la historia y la personalidad de José Smith -el profeta que restauró los conocimientos secretos y ritualestransmitidas a Adán, traducido las obras de Abraham, Enoc y Moisés, yretranslated Genesis - cuestión que se le hubiera interesado en laversión original de esta tradición judía oculta? And here, in Neibaur, was a man who could share a version of that knowledge with him. Y aquí, en Neibaur, era un hombre que podría compartir una versión de que el conocimiento con él.

Whateverthe reasons for the similarities, it should be remembered that theHermetic-Kabbalistic world view parallels Joseph's vision of God inmany particulars. Independientemente de las razones de lassimilitudes, cabe recordar que el Kabbalistic Hermética-visión delmundo paralelos José visión de Dios en muchos detalles. Notonly might Joseph have been interested in this material, but he wouldhave noted how similar this sacred, secret tradition was with his ownrestoration of ancient truth. José no sólo podrían haber estadointeresados en este material, pero que han tomado nota de cómo estasagrada similares, secreto tradición con su propia restauración de laantigua verdad. Andperhaps Neibaur, on a religious quest--from Judaism and Kabbalah,Europe and England, to Christianity and Mormonism and a new home inNauvoo--saw or even amplified that intrinsic sympathy in hisexplications of the tradition for Joseph. Neibaur y quizás, enuna búsqueda religiosa - el judaísmo y de la Cabalá, Europa eInglaterra, para el cristianismo y el Mormonismo y un nuevo hogar enNauvoo - vio amplificado o incluso que en su simpatía intrínsecaexplicaciones de la tradición de Joseph.

Certainly the first text Joseph Smith would have confronted was the Zohar, the great heart of the Kabbalah. Ciertamente, el primer texto de José Smith se han enfrentado fue el Zohar, el gran corazón de la Cábala. Thisis one of the works Neibaur cited repeatedly in his article and, as thecentral text of Kabbalah, is the key book any individual withKabbalistic interests would have preserved in his library. Familiaritywith the Zohar was a given for a Kabbalist, particularly onewith knowledge of works as divergent as those cited by Neibaur, all ofwhich expounded in some degree upon themes in the Zohar. If Neibaur had read to Joseph from any single text, or explained Kabbalistic concepts contained in a principal book, the Zohar would have been the book with which to start.Esta es una de las obras Neibaur citado repetidamente en su artículo y,según el texto central de la Cabalá, es la clave del libro a cualquierpersona que Kabbalistic intereses han conservado en su biblioteca. Lafamiliaridad con el Zohar es una de Kabbalist, en particularuna con el conocimiento de las obras como divergentes como los citadospor Neibaur, todos los cuales expusieron en algún grado a los temas enel Zohar. Neibaur Si había leído a José de un solo texto,explicó Kabbalistic o conceptos contenidos en una presentaciónprincipal del libro, el Zohar habría sido el libro con el que empezar. Thismight explain why in 1844 Smith, in what may be his single greatestdiscourse and in the most important public statement of histheosophical vision, apparently quotes almost word for word from thefirst section of the Zohar. Esto podría explicar por quéen 1844 Smith, en lo que puede ser su única y más grande en el discursoy la declaración pública más importante de su visión Teosófica,aparentemente cita casi palabra por palabra de la primera sección de laZohar.

Cabalá en la Doctrina Mormona: El Discurso de King Follett 

OnSunday afternoon, 7 April 1844, Joseph Smith stood before a crowdestimated at 10,000 and delivered his greatest sermon, the King FollettDiscourse. 130 Dissension, rumor, accusation, and conspiracy all abounded in Nauvoo on that pleasant spring day, and Joseph was at the center.El domingo por la tarde, el 7 de abril de 1844, José Smith se parófrente a una multitud estimada en 10.000 y pronunció su sermón mayor,el Rey Follett discurso. 130disensiones, rumor, acusación, y la conspiración abundan en todos losque en Nauvoo agradable día de primavera, y Joseph fue en el centro. This would be Joseph's last conference, ten weeks later he lay murdered at Carthage Jail. Esta sería la última conferencia de José, diez semanas más tarde, yacía asesinada en la cárcel de Cartago. In this atmosphere of tension, many in the congregation probably expected a message of conciliation, a retrenchment.En esta atmósfera de tensión, muchos en la congregación probablementeespera un mensaje de conciliación, una reducción de personal. Instead,the prophet stunned listeners with his most audacious publicdiscourse--a declaration replete with doctrinal innovations and strangeconcepts that many of the Saints had never before heard. Enlugar de ello, el profeta aturdidos oyentes más audaces con su discursopúblico - una declaración llena de innovaciones doctrinales y conceptosextraño que muchos de los Santos nunca había oído antes. AsFawn Brodie noted, "For the first time he proclaimed in a unifieddiscourse the themes he had been inculcating in fragments andfrequently in secret to his most favored saints: the glory ofknowledge, the multiplicity of gods, the eternal progression of thehuman soul." 131Fawn Brodie como señaló, "Por la primera vez que se proclama en undiscurso unificado de los temas que había sido inculcar en losfragmentos y, a menudo en secreto a su favor la mayoría de los santos:la gloria del conocimiento, la multiplicidad de dioses, la eternaevolución de la persona humana alma. "131

VanHale, in his analysis of the discourse's doctrinal impact, notes fourdeclarations made by Joseph Smith which have had an extraordinary andlasting impact on Mormon doctrine: men can become gods; there existmany Gods; the gods exist one above another innumerably; and God wasonce as man now is. 132Interestingly, these were all concepts that could, by variousexegetical approaches, be found in the Hermetic-Kabbalistic tradition.Van Hale, en su análisis del discurso doctrinal del impacto, cuatronotas de declaraciones hechas por José Smith que han tenido unextraordinario y duradero impacto en la doctrina de Mormón: los hombrespueden llegar a ser dioses; existen muchos dioses, los dioses existenpor encima de un innumerably otro, y Dios fue una vez que el hombreahora es 132. Curiosamente, se trataba de conceptos que, por diversos métodos exegéticos, se encuentra en la tradición Hermética-Kabbalistic. But even more astoundingly, it appears Joseph actually turned to the Zohar for help in supporting his introduction of these radical doctrinal assertions. Pero aún más sorprendentemente, parece convertirse en realidad Joseph Zohar a la ayuda en el apoyo a su presentación de estos radicales afirmaciones doctrinales.

Theprophet begins his discussion of the plurality and hierarchy of theGods with an odd exegesis of the first words of Genesis, Bereshith bara Elohim:El profeta comienza su análisis de la pluralidad y la jerarquía de losdioses con un extraño exégesis de las primeras palabras del Génesis, Bereshith bara Elohim:

I suppose I am not allowed to go into an investigation of anything that is not contained in the Bible. Supongo que no estoy autorizado a entrar en una investigación de todo lo que no está contenida en la Biblia. . . . . . . I will go to the old Bible and turn commentator today. Voy a ir a la Biblia y el viejo comentarista de turno el día de hoy. Iwill go to the very first Hebrew word--BERESHITH--in the Bible and makea comment on the first sentence of the history of creation: "In thebeginning. . . ." I want to analyze the word BERESHITH. Iré a laprimera palabra hebrea - BERESHITH - en la Biblia y hacer un comentariosobre la primera frase de la historia de la creación: "En elprincipio...." Quiero analizar la palabra BERESHITH. BE--in, by, through, and everything else; next, ROSH--the head; ITH. Where did it come from? BE - en, por, a través de, y todo lo demás; próximo, Rosh - la cabeza; ITH. ¿De dónde vino? Whenthe inspired man wrote it, he did not put the first part--theBE--there; but a man--a Jew without any authority---put it there.Cuando el hombre lo escribió inspirado, no puso la primera parte - BE -existe, pero un hombre - un Judio sin autoridad --- ponerlo allí. He thought it too bad to begin to talk about the head of any man. Él pensó que tan mal para empezar a hablar de la cabeza de cualquier hombre. It read in the first: "The Head One of the Gods brought forth the Gods." Se lee en la primera: "El Jefe Uno de los Dioses trajo los Dioses". This is the true meaning of the words. Este es el verdadero significado de las palabras. ROSHITH [BARA ELOHIM] signifies [the Head] to bring forth the Elohim. ROSHITH [BARA ELOHIM] significa [el jefe] para traer los Elohim. If you do not believe it you do not believe the learned man of God. Si usted no cree que usted no cree que el hombre de Dios. No learned man can tell you any more than what I have told you. Hombre no puedo decir nada más que lo que les he dicho. Thus, the Head God brought forth the Head Gods in the grand, head council. 133 Por lo tanto, el Jefe Dios sacó al Jefe en el gran Dios, jefe del consejo. 133

By any literate interpretation of Hebrew, this is an impossible reading. Alfabetizado por cualquier interpretación del hebreo, se trata de una lectura imposible. Joseph takes Elohim, the subject of the clause, and turns it into the object, the thing which received the action of creation. Bereshith ("in the beginning") is reinterpreted to become Roshith, the "head" or "Head Father of the Gods," who is the subject-actor creating Elohim. 134 And Elohim he interprets not as God, but as "the Gods." José toma Elohim, el tema de la cláusula, y lo convierte en el objeto, la cosa que recibió la acción de la creación. Bereshith ( "en principio") es reinterpretada a convertirse Roshith, el "jefe" o "Padre de la Cabeza dioses ", que es el sujeto-actor crear Elohim. 134 y Elohim él interpreta no como Dios, sino como" los dioses ". LouisC. Zucker, who published an insightful examination of Smith's study anduse of Hebrew, notes that this translation deviates entirely from theinterpretative convention Joseph had learned as a student of Hebrew inKirtland. Louis C. Zucker, quien publicó un perspicaz examen delestudio de Smith y el uso del hebreo, toma nota de que esta traducciónse desvía totalmente de la convención interpretativa Joseph habíaaprendido como estudiante de hebreo en Kirtland. JoshuaSeixas, the professor who had instructed Joseph and the School of theProphets in early 1836, used in his classes a textbook he had written, Hebrew grammar for the Use of Beginners. 135In the Seixas manual (p. 85), this Hebrew text of Genesis 1:1 is givenalong with a "correct" word-for-word translation: "In the beginning, hecreated, God, the heavens, and the earth." Joshua Seixas, elprofesor que había dado instrucciones a José y la Escuela de losProfetas a principios de 1836, utilizados en sus clases un libro detexto que había escrito, la gramática hebrea para el uso de los principiantes. 135En el manual de Seixas (p. 85), este hebreo texto de Génesis 1:1 se dajunto con un "correcto" palabra por palabra de traducción: "En elprincipio, creó Dios los cielos y la tierra". Seixas would not have introduced in his oral instruction a translation entirely alien to the conventions of his own textbook.Seixas no han introducido en su instrucción oral una traduccióntotalmente ajeno a las convenciones de su propio libro de texto. Zuckercomments on Smith's strange translation of the verse: "Joseph, withaudacious independence, changes the meaning of the first word, andtakes the third word `Eloheem' as literally plural. He ignores the restof the verse, and the syntax he imposes on his artificial three-wordstatement is impossible." 136Zucker comentarios sobre Smith extraña traducción del verso: "José, conindependencia audaz, cambia el significado de la primera palabra, ytoma la tercera palabra» Eloheem ', literalmente, como en plural. Seignora el resto del verso, y la sintaxis que impone artificiales en sudeclaración de tres palabras es imposible. "136

ButZucker (along with Mormon historians generally) ignored anotherexegesis of this verse--an exegesis which was a basic precept of JewishKabbalah from the thirteenth century on and which agrees, word forword, with Joseph's reading. 137 In the tradition of Kabbalah, Bereshith bara Elohim was most emphatically not an "artificial three-word statement," as Zucker implied.Pero Zucker (junto con los historiadores en general Mormón) ignoradootra exégesis de este versículo - una exégesis que es un preceptobásico de la Cábala judía desde el siglo XIII y que está de acuerdo,palabra por palabra, con la lectura de Joseph. 137 En la tradición de la Cabalá , bara Elohim Bereshith fue más enfático no un "artificial declaración de tres palabras," como Zucker implícita. Gershom Scholem, in the middle of a long discussion, explains this other view: Gershom Scholem, en medio de un largo debate, explica este otro punto de vista:

TheZohar, and indeed the majority of the older Kabbalists, questioned themeaning of the first verse of the Torah: Bereshith bara Elohim, "In thebeginning created God"; what actually does this mean? El Zohar,y de hecho la mayoría de los mayores Kabbalists, cuestionó el sentidodel primer verso de la Torá: Bereshith bara Elohim, "En el principiocreó Dios"; lo que realmente significa esto? The answer is fairly surprising. La respuesta es bastante sorprendente. Weare told that it means Bereshith--through the medium of the"beginning," [Hokhmah, or "Wisdom," the primordial image of the FatherGod in the Kabbalistic Sefiroth]--bara, created, that is to say, thehidden Nothing which constitutes the grammatical subject of the wordbara, emanated or unfolded,--Elohim, that is to say, its emanation isElohim. Se nos dice que esto significa Bereshith - por medio delos "principios", [Hokhmah, o "Sabiduría", la imagen primordial delPadre Dios en el Kabbalistic Sefiroth] - bara, creado, es decir, elNada oculta que constituye el sujeto gramatical de la palabra bara,emanado o desplegada, - Elohim, es decir, su emanación es Elohim. It [Elohim] is the object, and not the subject of the sentence. 138 Es [Elohim] es el objeto, y no el sujeto de la frase. 138

Scholem's point is perhaps made clearer by restatement. Scholem es quizás el punto más clara reafirmación. In the Zohar, and in the commentaries of the majority of older (that is, thirteenth- and fourteenth-century Kabbalists), the verse Bereshith bara Elohim is grammatically turned around. Bereshith is understood to refer to the Sefirah of Hokhmah,translated as "Wisdom" and identified in Kabbalistic theosophy as theSupernal Father--the figure who is usually interpreted in Kabbalah asthe First of the Godhead. Hokhmah then emanates, or "creates" in the sense of unfolding, the Elohim. 139 As Scholem notes, the interesting thing here is that Elohim has become the object of the sentence, and is no longer the subject. En el Zohar, y en los comentarios de la mayoría de edad (es decir, decimotercero y decimocuarto siglo Kabbalists), el verso Bereshith bara Elohim es gramaticalmente vuelta. Bereshith se refiere a la Sefirah de Hokhmah,traducido como " Sabiduría ", señalados en Kabbalistic Teosofía comosuprema Padre - es la cifra que suelen interpretarse en la Cabalá comola primera de la Divinidad. Hokhmah entonces emana, o" crea "en el sentido del despliegue, los Elohim. 139 Como señala Scholem, lo interesante aquí es que Elohim se ha convertido en el objeto de la condena, y ya no es el tema. This is precisely Joseph Smith's reading. Este es, precisamente, la lectura de José Smith.

This interpretation of Genesis 1:1 is not deeply hidden in the Zohar, but constitutes its opening paragraphs, and is the central concern of the entire first section of this long book. The Zohar begins with a commentary on Bereshith bara Elohim: Esta interpretación de Génesis 1:1 no es profundamente ocultos en el Zohar,pero constituye la apertura de sus párrafos, y es la preocupacióncentral de toda la primera sección de este libro de largo. El Zohar se inicia con un comentario sobre Bereshith bara Elohim:

Itis written: And the intelligent shall shine like the brightness of thefirmament, and they that turn many to righteousness like the stars forever and ever. Está escrito: Y el inteligente deberá brillarcomo el resplandor del firmamento, y que a su vez a la justicia aligual que muchas de las estrellas para siempre jamás. There was indeed a "brightness" [ Zohar ]. 140 The Most Mysterious struck its void, and caused this point to shine. Hubo efectivamente un "brillo" [Zohar]. 140 La mayor parte de su misteriosa golpeó vacío, y ha causado este punto a brillar. This "beginning" [ Reshith ] then extended, and made for itself a palace for its honour and glory. Este "principio" [Reshith] y ampliado, y por sí mismo un palacio para su honor y gloria. . . . . . . Thus by means of this "beginning" [ Reshith ] the Mysterious Unknown made this palace. En consecuencia, por medio de este "inicio" [Reshith], el misterioso desconocido hizo este palacio. This palace is called Elohim, and this doctrine is contained in the words, "By means of a beginning [ Reshith, it,] created Elohim." 141 Este palacio es llamado Elohim, y esta es la doctrina contenida en las palabras, "Por medio de un comienzo [Reshith, es], creado Elohim". 141

So far this is exactly Joseph Smith's reading. Hasta ahora esto es exactamente de José Smith de la lectura. In his exegesis Joseph takes Elohim,the subject of the clause, and turns it into the object which receivedthe action of creation from the first god-image (here called Reshith ), just as does the Zohar.Indeed, his words as transcribed by William Clayton, "Rosheet signifiesto bring forth the Eloheim," are almost identical with the Zohar 's phrasing of the interpretation. 142 En su exégesis de José toma Elohim,el tema de la cláusula, y lo convierte en el objeto que recibió laacción de creación de la primera imagen de Dios (aquí llamado Reshith), al igual que el Zohar. De hecho, como sus palabras transcritas por William Clayton, "Rosheet significa sacar a la Eloheim," son casi idénticos a los Zohar 's fraseo de la interpretación. 142

In his next step of translation, Smith interprets Bereshith to become Rosh, the "head" or head God. En su próximo paso de la traducción, Smith interpreta Bereshith para convertirse en Rosh, la "cabeza" o la cabeza de Dios. As Zucker objected, orthodox standards of translations do not yield the word Rosh, or "head," from Bereshith. But it was not "audacious independence" alone that led Smith to changed the meaning. Como se opuso Zucker, normas ortodoxas de las traducciones no ceder la palabra Rosh, o "cabeza", de Bereshith. Pero no fue "audaz independencia" solo que Smith llevó a un cambio en el significado. A basis for this reading is actually found in the next verse of the Zohar: By a Kabbalistic cipher of letters--a technique used in Kabbalah to conceal deeper esoteric meanings--the Zohar explains that the word Reshith "is anagrammatically Rosh (head), the beginning which issues from Reshith." 143 (To understand the fuller intent of this phrase, one must again remember that Rosh or reshith is here interpreted by Kabbalah to be Hokhmah, the first god-image, the Supernal Father.) Thus in this text Reshith has been interposed as an anagram for Rosh --who is understood to be the "Head God," Hokhmah.Could this be what Joseph means when he says "a man, a Jew withoutauthority" changed the reading of the word, perhaps by failing tounderstand this ancient Kabbalistic anagram? A base de esta lectura es, en realidad se encuentran en el siguiente versículo del Zohar:Por un sistema de cifrado de Kabbalistic cartas - una técnica utilizadaen la Cabalá para ocultar más profundo significado esotérico - el Zohar explica que la palabra Reshith "es anagrammatically Rosh (cabeza) , el comienzo de las cuestiones que Reshith ". 143 (Para entender la plena intención de esta frase, hay que recordar que de nuevo o Rosh reshith es aquí interpretado por la Cabalá a Hokhmah, la primera imagen de Dios, el Padre suprema.) Así, en Reshith este texto se ha interpuesto como un anagrama de Rosh - que se entiende como la "Cabeza Dios", Hokhmah.¿Puede ser esto lo que significa Joseph cuando dice "un hombre, unJudio, sin autorización," cambió la lectura de la palabra , tal vez porno entender esta antigua Kabbalistic anagrama?

Finally, Smith translates Elohim in the plural, as "the Gods." Por último, Smith traduce Elohim en plural, como "los dioses". Theword is indeed in a plural Hebrew form, but by the orthodoxinterpretative conventions Joseph was taught in his Kirtland Hebrewclass (which remain the norm) it is read as singular. La palabraes, en efecto, en una forma plural hebreo, pero por la ortodoxiainterpretativa convenios Joseph se enseña en su clase Kirtland hebreo(que siguen siendo la norma) que es leído como singular. In the Zohar, however, it is interpreted in the plural. En el Zohar, no obstante, se interpreta en el plural. This is witnessed throughout the Zoharand appears clearly in the following paragraph from the openingsections of the work, where the phrase "Let us make man" (Gen. 1:26) isused as the basis for a discussion on the plurality of the gods:

"Us" certainly refers to two, of which one said to the other above it,"let us make," nor did it do anything save with the permission anddirection of the one above it, while the one above did nothing withoutconsulting its colleague. But that which is called "the Cause above allcauses," which has no superior or even equal, as it is written, "Towhom shall ye liken me, that I should be equal?" (Is. 40:25), said,"See now that I, I am he, and Elohim is not with me," from whom heshould take counsel. . . . Withal the colleagues explained the wordElohim in this verse as referring to other gods. 144

Within this passage is both the concept of plurality and of thehierarchy of Gods acting "with the permission and direction of the oneabove it, while the one above did nothing without consulting itscolleague." This interpretation is of course echoed in the King Follettdiscourse and became a foundation for all subsequent Mormon theosophy.

Two months after giving the King Follett Discourse, Joseph returned tothese first Hebrew words of Genesis and the subject of plural Gods.Thomas Bullock transcribed his remarks on the rainy Sunday morning of16 June 1844. This was to be Joseph's last public proclamation ondoctrine; eleven days later he lay dead. Joseph first introduced hissubject--the plurality of Gods--then again read in Hebrew the openingwords of Genesis and repeated his interpretation of Bereshith bara Elohim,using much the same phrasing recorded two months earlier in the KingFollett Discourse. He then turned to Genesis 1:26, "Let us make man,"the same passage interpreted in the Zohar to imply a pluralityof Gods. After reading the verse aloud in Hebrew, he interpreted thetext and found in it the same occult import given by the Zohar: The God "which has no superior or equal" (the Zohar 's words), the "Head one of the Gods" (Joseph's term) addressed the "other Gods," Elohimin the plural translation, saying "let us make man." Bullocktranscribed his remarks thus: "if we pursue the Heb further it reads[here he apparently read in Hebrew Genesis 1:26] The Head one of theGods said let us make man in our image. . . . in the very beginningthere is a plurality of Gods--beyond power of refutation--it is a greatsubject I am dwelling on--the word Eloiheam ought to be in the pluralall the way thro." 145

As he began his exegesis of the opening Hebrew phrase of Genesis in theKing Follett Discourse, Joseph stated that he would go to the "oldBible." In Kabbalistic lore, the commentary of the Zoharrepresented the oldest biblical interpretation, the secretinterpretation imparted by God to Adam and all worthy prophets afterhim. Joseph certainly was not using the knowledge of Hebrew imparted tohim in Kirtland nine years earlier when he gave his exegesis of Bereshith bara Elohim, or plural interpretation of Elohim. Was then the "old Bible" he used the Zohar ? And was the "learned man of God" he mentioned Simeon ben Yochai, the prophetic teacher attributed with these words in the Zohar ?

Joseph wove Hebrew into several of his discourses during the final yearof his life. In these late Nauvoo discourses, however, he interpretedthe Hebrew not as a linguist but as a Kabbalist--a reflection of hisown predilections and of the fortuitous aid of his tutor, AlexanderNeibaur. 146But in conclusion, we need to step back from this discussion of wordsand see that behind them resides a unique vision, a visioncharacteristic of the occult Hermetic-Kabbalistic tradition. HaroldBloom called the King Follett Discourse "one of the truly remarkablesermons ever preached in America." It is also a remarkable evidence ofthe prophet's visionary ties to the archaic legacy of Jewish Gnosticismand to the single most influential force in the evolution of Christianoccultism: the Kabbalah.

Kabbalah after Joseph: A Legacy Misunderstood

Kabbalistic theosophy was, if nothing else, complex. Differentinterpretations abounded among Christian Kabbalists removed from theoriginal Kabbalistic foundations of Jewish culture and halakhicobservance. We can imagine how easily such ideas might have beenmisunderstood by a concretely minded Yankee disciple of Joseph Smith.This may help explain a troubling conundrum of early Mormon theology:Brigham Young's assertion that "Adam is God." Brigham claimed thatJoseph had taught him this doctrine--although there is no evidence thatJoseph ever publicly avowed such a view. 147 In Kabbalah the theme is, however, prominent: Adam Kadmonis indeed "God," and His form is in the image of a Man--as notedearlier. Given the evidence that Joseph did know some elements ofKabbalah and had access both to the Zohar and to a Jew familiarwith a wide range of Kabbalistic materials, it seems probable thatBrigham heard this concept in some form from Joseph. The Adam-Goddoctrine may have been a misreading (or simplistic restatement) byBrigham Young of a Kabbalistic and Hermetic concept relayed to him bythe prophet.

More than one element in early Mormon theologysuggests that subtle visions could be made grossly concrete. Perhapsthe most striking example is sacral nature of marital sexual union andthe human potential for multiple sacred marriages, a potential sharedin Joseph's time by both women and men. As Bloom noted, in Kabbalah andperhaps in Smith's practice "the function of sanctified human sexualintercourse essentially is theurgical." 148This was an important undertone in the wider circles of Christianoccultism, eventually manifest in several occult Masonic societies. HowJoseph interacted with this tradition and vision is the single mostinteresting and important issue awaiting historians of Mormonism. Thatthis was an issue early in his life is witnessed by the need to marryand have Emma with him prior to obtaining the golden plates of the Bookof Mormon. 149That the preoccupation persisted throughout his life needs littleargument. Ideas of sacred sexuality permeated Kabbalah, Hermeticism,and alchemy, perhaps touching even the mystical vision of WolfgangAmadeus Mozart in his overtly Masonic opera, The Magic Flute: "Mann und Weib, Weib und Man; Reichen an die Gottheit an!" ("Man and Woman, Woman and Man, Together they approximate the Divine!"). 150By investigating in depth the legacy of ideas and experiences ofKabbalah and Christian occultism, we might begin to understand thisperplexing vision shared by the prophet Joseph Smith.

That Kabbalistic ideas persisted among Joseph's disciples is suggestedin an intriguing piece of evidence appearing three years after theprophet's martyrdom. To understand this item, a more detailedunderstanding of Kabbalah as Joseph may have heard it is necessary.Briefly summarized: the most important symbolic representation of thestructure of "the Kingdom of God" in Kabbalah was the "Tree of the Sefiroth " (See Figure 1 and 2.). The Tree was re-drawn by Robert Fludd (an important EnglishKabbalist and Rosicrucian of the seventeenth century) in a slightlydifferent fashion. 151 (See Figure 12.) In his figure, Fludd uses the allegorical image of a Tree with rootsin heaven above and palm-like "branches" at the bottom (in the Sefirah of Malkhuth, meaning "Foundation"), extending into the earth. The tree is crowned; the crown representing Kether (meaning "Crown"), the first Sefirah and primal god-image. Below this crown, the tree branches into the other nine Sefiroth.

In the Latter-day Saints' Millennial Star in 1847 an interesting figure appears, titled "A Diagram of the Kingdom of God" (Figure 12). 152The artist and author of this small piece was probably Orson Hyde.Hyde's tree is also crowned, and branches in precisely the fashion ofFludd's tree. The only difference is that the Hyde tree has twenty-twobranches. This is a remarkable choice of numbers, as any student ofKabbalah will recognize. In Kabbalah there are two important numericalaspects of the Tree of Sefiroth: the first is the number ten, the number of Sefiroth, the second is the number twenty-two, the number of paths between the Sefiroth,one for each letter of the Hebrew alphabet. Thus Joseph Smith may haveconveyed to one his apostles--or Hyde may have independently foundcompatible with the prophet's teachings--the most essential symbolicelement of Kabbalah, the "mystical shape of the Godhead" contained inthe image of the Sefiroth as redrawn by a principal and very influential seventeenth-century Christian Kabbalist, Fludd.

That interest in the subject of Kabbalah and Hermeticism persisted inat least one disciple of Smith's is witnessed by William Clayton.Clayton was Smith's personal secretary and one of his intimateassociates during the prophet's last years in Nauvoo. 153Few, if any, individuals had a closer view of Joseph Smith in theNauvoo period. This may explain Clayton's otherwise unusual interest inKabbalah and alchemy manifest in his later years. In 1864 someone inUtah loaned Clayton a guidebook of "Cabala," a tract apparentlycontaining several advertisements for esoteric materials relating to"Cabala" and alchemy. As one of Clayton's biographers write, "Thoughthe record is not clear, it may be that . . . he wanted . . . somethingakin to the so-called Philosopher's Stone of the ancient alchemists--asubstance that supposedly enabled the adept, when applied correctly, totransmute metals." Clayton subsequently organized an alchemical societyin Salt Lake City, with himself as corresponding secretary, andpurchased several mail-order alchemical outfits. The group, whichnumbered at least twenty-six members, spent months attempting totransmute metals without success before finally abandoning theirproject. 154Though it appears Clayton was simply duped by a mail-order shyster, hisesoteric interests and his faith in them might also be explained bysome recollection he harbored about Kabbalah and the prophet in Nauvoo.

Conclusion: Joseph and the Occult Connection

In attempting to understand Joseph Smith and his religious vision,historians have examined both the religious sparks kindled by his timeand the social soils from which the young prophet sprang. As useful assome of these efforts have been, I still agree with Paul Edwards: ourmethods so far have been too "traditional and unimaginative" tocomprehend Joseph's history; we remain, even now, blinded by the fearsof yesterday--or biased by its erroneous judgments. Chief among thesubjects that might be "feared" in Mormon history is Joseph's apparentrecurrent association with the "occult" traditions of Westernspirituality, and this remains the area of his history least examinedand understood. It is impossible for me to present fresh evidence whichseemingly links Joseph Smith to what might be interpreted as "theoccult" without addressing this wider issue.

The historicalrecord witnesses that Joseph Smith had some intercourse with at leastthree important manifestations of the alternative and non-orthodoxreligious traditions that blossomed in the Renaissance andpost-Renaissance period, traditions sometimes labeled as "the occult":ceremonial magic, Masonry, and Kabbalah. These associations extendedthroughout his life, and his liaison with each constituted more thancasual acquaintance. This is an area of history to which Mormonhistorians have been hesitant to turn full attention--an area where ourfears (or ignorance) have delimited our understanding.

Itwould be foolish at this late date to maintain that any singletradition engendered Joseph Smith's religious vision. Joseph was anAmerican original--and we need not fear him being cast as a Masonicpundit, folk magician, Rosicrucian mystic, medieval Kabbalist, orancient Gnostic. Nonetheless, we must recognize that something in thenature of the prophet, some element of his own intrinsic vision, didresonate with the occult traditions of the Western spiritual quest.Into the spirit and matter of his religious legacy, he wove thesesympathies. Joseph carried his silver talisman, inscribed with thesigil of Jupiter and Hebrew letters cast in a magic square, upon hisperson to his death. He called Masonry a remnant of true priesthood,and over a thousand of his men in Nauvoo, including nearly every thencurrent or future priesthood leader of his nascent church, went throughthe three separate steps of ritual initiation leading to the degree ofMaster Mason. In his last months, amid dissension and danger, he foundtime to sit and read Hebrew and perhaps study Kabbalah and the Zoharwith Alexander Neibaur. In April 1844, when his congregation expectedretrenchment and reconciliation, he turned to that Hebrew, andbequeathed to his disciples an extraordinary vision of God--atheosophical pronouncement which echoed the tones of Kabbalah even tothe ear of a critic so far removed in time and culture as Harold Bloom.

It is this last link--Joseph's sympathy for Kabbalah--which maybe the key that finally unlocks a pattern, and opens a new methodologyfor understanding the prophet Joseph Smith. As Richard Bushman noted:

The power of Enlightenment skepticism had far less influence on JosephSmith. . . . Joseph told of the visits of angels, of directinspiration, of a voice in the chamber of Father Whitmer, withoutembarrassment. He prized the Urim and Thummim and the seerstone, neverrepudiating them even when the major charge against him was that heused magic to find buried money. His world was not created byEnlightenment rationalism with its deathly aversion to superstition.The Prophet brought into modern America elements of a more ancientculture in which the sacred and the profane intermingled and the Saintsenjoyed supernatural gifts and powers as the frequent blessing of aninterested God. 155

Joseph Smith did indeed bring into America elements of an ancientculture--but that culture was not temporally very distant from theprophet. When Joseph was introduced to Jewish Kabbalah in its classicform in Nauvoo, he found--consciously or unconsciously--the fiber of athread woven throughout the fabric of his life. The magic he met as ayouth, the prophetic reinterpretation of scripture and opening of thecanon to divine revelation, the Masonic symbol system: all of thesewere reflections of an heterodox Hermetic religious tradition that hadpersisted in various occult fashions within the Western religioustradition for centuries, a tradition of which Kabbalah was a mostimportant part. Call the tradition "occult" if you wish--certainly tosurvive it was at times hidden--but do not error by seeing it as simplya legacy of ideas from which the young prophet might pick and choose.

This tradition--as is now well accepted by scholars--was driven by thephenomenon of a rare human experience. As interwoven into Hermeticism,Kabbalah was a tradition not just of theosophic assertions, but ofreturn to prophetic vision. For a millennium or more--perhaps datingall the way back to the suppressed heresy of the Gnostics--men andwomen within this larger tradition asserted the reality of theirvision--and sometimes even used what now seems modern psychologicalinsight in dealing with their experiences. 156Individuals caught in this experience not uncommonly saw themselves asprophets, though the force of the tradition sought to maintain abalance in the face of such realizations. Many of them thoughtthemselves kings and queens before God, and some openly proclaimedtheir royalty. 157They probed the mystery of Adam and Eve, and primal creation, theyembraced rituals and symbols as non-verbal expressions of ineffableinsights. Their sexuality was sacralized, and not infrequently theirsacred sexual practices ranged beyond the bounds of expression acceptedby the societies of their times. Their most sacred mystery, the great mysterium coniunctionis,was sometimes ecstatically mirrored in the holy union of a man and awomen. They authored pseudoepigraphic works, invoking ancient voices astheir own. They told new stories about God because for them God was aliving story: and they found their own lives mingled within a storybeing told by a living God. When Joseph sought a mirror to understandhimself he found reflections in a history not so distant as that ofancient Israel. His story, the prophet's story, lived within the occultlegacy of his time. He touched that legacy often, and he saw in it theimage--even if dimmed and distorted--of a priesthood he shared.

Joseph Smith's life reflected the nature of an unusual humanexperience, and to understand his history we must understand hisexperience in the context of history. The Swiss psychologist Carl Jungdedicated the last half of his long life to elucidating the nature andpsychological insights of the Kabbalistic-Hermetic-alchemicaltradition. He felt it held the pearl of great price, the treasureforgotten by Christianity in its enlightened Protestant evolution. Itwas at the Eranos conferences dominated by Jung, that Gershom Scholem,the preeminent pioneer of Kabbalistic studies, opened the eyes ofWestern scholarship to the tradition's import in our history. 158Moshe Idel, Scholem's brilliant and independent protégé, hassubsequently reaffirmed the value of a psychological perception inunderstanding its phenomena. 159With insights augmented by Scholem's work, the historian Francis Yatespioneered a new understanding of the vast influence of the occulttradition in Renaissance and Reformation culture. 160 And recently Harold Bloom has pointed to its import in the creative vision of more modern times. 161Perhaps the thrust of this scholarship is now reaching the cloisters ofMormon history. But should that indeed be the case, Mormon historiansmust understand that they are embarking into a different methodology ofhistory. A prophet's history flows from two springs, one above and onebelow, both melding in currents of his life. What story from above theprophet may have heard will remain his secret, the history no manknows. But by turning to the larger realm of prophetic history and itsoccult legacy, the record of its aspirations, its symbols and lore, andthe enigmatic histories of the women and men who have been caught inthis unique human experience, we may begin to find a methodology thatleads us with new wonder into the unknown history of Joseph Smith.


Appendix: Alexander Neibaur's Library

Below is a summary of citations given by Alexander Neibaur in his article "The Jews," Times and Seasons4 (1 June 1843): 220-22, and 4 (15 June 1843): 233-34. They are listedin order of first occurrence in his text. When an author or text iscited more than once, only the first is listed. These citations includeseveral of the "classic" Kabbalistic texts circulated between thefourteenth and eighteenth centuries--works such as the Zohar, Menorat ha Ma'or, Emek ha-Melekh, and the 'Avodat ha-Kodesh--as well as a few rarer documents. I have noted several citations tothese important texts in recent of Kabbalah by Moshe Idel and GershomScholem.

"Rabbi Manasse Ben Israel says in Nishmath Cajim": R. Manasseh Ben Israel, Nishmat Hayyim, a work published in Amsterdam in 1652 in defense of the Kabbalistic concept of gilgul, the transmigration of souls. (Neibaur specifically mentions the term "Gilgool".) (Scholem, Kabbalah, 349.)

"R. Issac Aberhaph in his Menorat Hamorr": Israel al-Nakawa is the true author of this important fourteenth-century work, Menorat ha Ma'or. I have not yet identified the author cited by Neibaur, "R. Aberhaph," which is apparently in error. (Scholem, Kabbalah, 66.)

"R. Baccay" (later cited as "R. Bacay" and "Rabbi Bachay"): Possibly R.Samson Bacchi of Casale Monferrato. A seventeenth-century Italian Jewand Kabbalist, and a disciple of the leading Kabbalist in Italy, R.Moses Zacuto. R. Bacchi had intimate knowledge of the Sabbateanmovement and several associations with followers of Sabbatai Sevi.(Scholem, Sabbatai Sevi, 501-3) He had studied Lurianic Kabbalah with one of Luria's disciples, Joseph ibn Tabul. (Scholem, Kabbalah, 424.) Another possibility is the twelfth-century philosopher Bachya Ben Joseph ibn Pakuda.

"R. Isaac Abarbanel": R. Isaac Abrabanel (or Abravanel) was a prominentcommentator on Kabbalistic eschatology and messianism active in latefifteenth and early sixteenth centuries. Idel notes Abarvanel as one ofthe commentators who tended to add a Platonic interpretation toKabbalistic ideas. (Idel, Kabbalah, 3, 144, 281; Scholem, Kabbalah, 71; Scholem, Sabbatai Sevi, 14.)

"RD Kimchi": R. David Kimchi, a thirteenth-century grammarian and biblical commentator.

"Rabbi Naphtali in Emakhamelek": Emek ha-Melekhby Naphtali Bacharach, published in 1648 and considered "one of themost important kabbalistic works." A German kabbalist active in thefirst half of the seventeenth century, "Bacharach appears as anenthusiastic and fanatical kabbalist, with a special flair for themystical and non-philosophical traits of Kabbalah. . . . The book Emek ha-Melekhhad a great impact on the development of the late Kabbalah. It waswidely recognized as an authoritative source on the doctrine of IsaacLuria, and kabbalists from many countries . . . quoted him extensively.His influence is also noticeable in Sabbatean literature" (Scholem, Kabbalah, 394-95).

"Jalkut Kodosh" (later cited "Jalkut Kadash" and "Talkut Kadash"): Yalqut Khadash,a seventeenth-century anthology of Kabbalistic material. This anthologycontained a most interesting text on the mystical and salvificintention of sexual union between male and female (Scholem, Sabbatai Sevi, 61-62).

"Medrash Neelam": Midrash Ha-Neelam is a principal section of the Zohar,the central Kabbalistic collection of esoteric teachings. Scholemargues that it may be temporally one of the oldest constituent sectionsof the Zohar (Scholem, Major Trends in Jewish Mysticism, 181-88).

"R. Joseph Albo": Spanish philosopher and Kabbalist (ca. 1380-ca. 1435) whose principal work, Sepher ha-Ikkarim, achieved considerable popularity with both scholars and laymen. (Idel, Kabbalah, 144.)

"Aphkat Rackel" (later also cited as "Ophkat Rochel"): Abkat Rokhel, a Kabbalistic book in circulation in the seventeenth century (Scholem, Sabbatai Sevi, 661n.)

"R. Jacanan": R. Yohanan ben Zakkai is a Talmudic figure, and this reference is most likely to him.

"Talmuh Tract Sanhedrin": Talmudic text. (Idel, Kabbalah, 403.)

"Bereshith Rabba": The Bereshith rabbati by R. Moses ben Isaac ha-Darshan of Narbonne, France (eleventh century). (Scholem, On the Mystical Shape of the Godhead, 156). R. Moses was a primary source of early gematriot, the cipher of letters to find hidden meanings in scripture. (Scholem, Kabbalah, 338.)

"R. Levi ber Gerohonon": Levi ben Gershon (also Gershom or Gersonides)lived in the South of France (1288-1344), and is often considered thegreatest Jewish philosopher after Maimonides. Working in anintellectual atmosphere charged with Kabbalistic and Aristotelianinfluences, he authored philosophic and scientific works which had awide influence.

"R. Jonathan": Not yet identified.

"Talmud Tract Resokim": Talmudic text.

"R. Elias": Not yet identified.

"Rabbi Akiba": R. Akiba (or, R. 'Akiva), a second-century Jewish heroand early midrashic commentator, revered in later commentary to havebeen a source of both halakhic and esoteric knowledge. (Scholem, Sabbatai Sevi, 78-79).

"Avodath Hakodash" (also cited as "Abodah Hakadash"): 'Avodat ha-Kodesh,by R. Meir ibn Gabbay. Written in 1531 in "Palestine or Egypt by theleading kabbalist of the generation before Luria" (Scholem, Sevi, 47), this is a "classic exposition of theosophical kabbalah" (Idel, Kabbalah, 399), and "made an especially impressive summary of the teachings of the earlier Kabbalists" (Scholem, On the Mystical Shape of the Godhead, 81). It was published in Venice in 1566 (Scholem, Sevi,47). Ibn Gabbay in this and other works developed the theurgic conceptof man as divine in form, influencing the divine. (Idel, Kabbalah, 176).

"Talmud Tract Ketuboth": Talmudic text.

"Sohar": The primary text of Kabbalah, the Zohar. The first printed edition of the Zoharappeared almost simultaneously in two different place, Mantua andCremona, in 1588-90. Several later editions appeared, but the Mantuaedition had the widest influence, and most subsequent editions werebased on its text. Portions of the Zohar appeared in Knorr von Rosenroth's Latin Kabbalah Denudata, first published at Sulzbach in 1677.

"Rabbi Simeon, son of Jacay": R. Simeon b. Yochai, the central figure in the text of the principal Kabbalistic text, the Zohar.

"Pesikta Raba": This is the Pesiqta Rabbathi,one of the late midrashim, notable for the impressive eschatologicalsections and messianic exegesis. This particular midrash was importantto Sabbateans, who used sections of it to explain the messianic burdenborn by Sabbatai Sevi. (Scholem, Sabbatai Sevi, 54, 146, 175.)

"Rabbi Jehuda": Not yet identified.

"Rabbi Joshua ben Menaser": Not yet identified.

"The Book Siphri": Sifrei, a midrashic-talmudic text. (M. Idel, Kabbalah, 403.)

"Book Rad Hakemah": Possibly Kad ha-Kemahby Bachya Ibn Pakuda, a thirteenth-century philospher whose work had astrong spiritual affinity with the Arab mystics, and influencedsubsequent Jewish mysticism.



 

José Smith y de la Cabalá: La conexión oculta

  Lance S. Owens


  Notas y Leyendas


Leyendas A LA ILUSTRACIÓN



Figure 1. Figura 1. A Kabbalist contemplates the "tree " of the ten Sefiroth, the Kabbalistic Tree of Life. Un Kabbalist contempla el "árbol" de los diez Sefiroth, el Kabbalistic Árbol de la Vida. One of the first printed illustrations of the Sefiroth in this form, it appeared on the title page from a Latin translation of a Kabbalistic work by J. Gikatilla. Una de las primeras ilustraciones de los impresos Sefiroth en esta forma, apareció en la portada de una traducción latina de una Kabbalistic trabajo de J. Gikatilla. Paulus Ricius, Portae Lucis (Augsburg, 1516.) Paulus Ricius, Portae Lucis (Augsburgo, 1516.)



Figure 2. Figura 2. The sacred "Tree of Sefiroth ", superimposed upon the Adam Kadmon (as drawn by the early twentieth century student of occultism, AE Waite in The Holy Kabbalah. ) At the top of the tree is Kether, "the Crown", the first form of God. Lo sagrado "Árbol de la Sefiroth", superpuesta a la de Adam Kadmon (establecido por principios del siglo XX los estudiantes de ocultismo, AE Waite El Santo en la Cabalá.) En la parte superior del árbol es Kether, "la Corona", la primera forma de Dios. Below are Hokhmah and Binah , the supernal Masculine and Feminine image of the the Divine. A continuación se Hokhmah y Binah, la suprema Masculino y Femenino de la imagen de la Divinidad. From these pfotencies emanated the other Sefirah , the vessels of Divine manifestation. A partir de estos pfotencies emanado Sefirah los otros, los buques de la Divina manifestación.



Figure 3. Figura 3. The world within the complexio oppositorum, a creative embrace of masculine and feminine natures, hereaccompanied by their symbolic counterparts, the Sun and Moon. Thesesymbols combined upon facade of the Nauvoo temple embodied in sacredarchitecture a vision of Divinity unique to Hermetism, Rosicrucianismand alchemy. El mundo en el complexio oppositorum, unabrazo creativos masculino y femenino de la naturaleza, aquí acompañadopor sus homólogos simbólico, el Sol y la Luna. Estos símboloscombinados a la fachada del templo consagrado en Nauvoo arquitecturasacra una visión única de la Divinidad a Hermetismo, Rosicrucianism yla alquimia. From a seventeenth century alchemical work. Siglo XVII de un trabajo alquímico. Herbrandt Jamsthaler, Viatorium spagyricum (Frankfurt, 1625) Herbrandt Jamsthaler, Viatorium spagyricum (Frankfurt, 1625)



Figure 4. Figura 4. HermesTrismegistus (identified by his traditional priestly robes andhead-dressing) indicates the twin principles, allegorically representedby Sun and Moon, conjoined in the divine fire of the complexio oppositorum .Hermes Trismegistus (identificada por su tradicional túnica sacerdotaly la cabeza-vestidor), indica los principios, alegóricamenterepresentada por el Sol y la Luna, sumados en el fuego de la divina complexio oppositorum. Inhis right hand he holds an armillary, indicative of the celestialagencies indispensable to this mysterious, transformative and creativeunion. En su mano derecha que posee un armilar, indicativo de locelestial organismos indispensables para esta misteriosa, la unióntransformadora y creativa. Michael Maier, Symbola aureae mensae (Frankfurt, 1617). Michael Maier, Symbola aureae mensae (Frankfurt, 1617).



Figure 5. Figura 5. Theallegorical beehive (far right) is juxtaposed with the alchemical oven(left), within which the transmutation of matter into the "stone of thephilosopher's" takes place. La alegórica colmena (extremaderecha) se yuxtapone con el horno alquímico (a la izquierda), en elque la transmutación de la materia en la "piedra de la del filósofo" selleva a cabo. The"false alchemists" (in the center) who misunderstand the Divine natureof this work and seek only vulgar gold, are compared to the uselessdrones of the hive. Los "falsos alquimistas" (en el centro), queentienden mal la naturaleza divina de este trabajo y sólo buscan orovulgar, se comparan con los aviones teledirigidos inútil de la colmena. From an alchemical work published at the height of the Rosicrucian enlightenment. Alquímica de una obra publicada a la altura de los rosacruces iluminación. Michael Maier, Examen fucorum (Frankfurt: Nicholas Hoffman for Theodor de Bry, 1617). Michael Maier, Examen fucorum (Frankfurt: Nicholas Hoffman de Theodor de Bry, 1617).



Figure 6. Figura 6. TheAll-Seeing Eye of God as it appears on the title page of Robert Fludd's1621 treatise on theosophy and Kabbalah. The words ascending from theprophet, " In alarum tuarum umbra canam " are a direct reference to a theme in the Rosicrucian Fama Fraternitatis , "Under the shadow of thy wings will I rejoice" (Ps 63:7).El All-Seeing Eye de Dios tal como aparece en la página del título deRobert Fludd 1621 del tratado sobre Teosofía y Cabalá. Ascendente Laspalabras del profeta: "En alarum tuarum umbra CANAM" son una referencia directa a un tema en el rosacruces Fama Fraternitatis , "Bajo la sombra de tus alas me alegro" (Sal 63:7). Robert Fludd, Utriusque Cosmi Maioris ... Tomi Secundi Tractatus Secundus (Frankfurt: Johann Theodore de Bry, 1621) Robert Fludd, Utriusque Cosmi Maioris ... Tomi Secundi Tractatus Segundo (Frankfurt: Johann Theodore de Bry, 1621)



Figure 7. Figura 7. "TheSeal of the Priesthood" consists of a phrygian cap or crown over theAll-Seeing Eye of God; the private seal of the Twelve Apostles iscomposed of this same emblem surrounded by sixteen letters, anabbreviation for "Private Seal of the Twelve Apostles, Priests of theChurch of Jesus Christ of Latter Day Saints, in the Last DispensationAll Over the World." "El Sello del Sacerdocio" consta de ungorro frigio o corona en el All-Seeing Eye de Dios, el sello privado delos Doce Apóstoles se compone de este mismo emblema rodeado dedieciséis cartas, una abreviatura de "Sello privado de los Doceapóstoles, sacerdotes de la Iglesia de Jesucristo de los Últimos DíasSantos, en la última Dispensación todo el mundo. " The seal was apparently first engraven in Nauvoo under the guidance of John Taylor and Brigham Young in January of 1845. El sello fue aparentemente primera engraven en Nauvoo bajo la dirección de John Taylor y Brigham Young, en enero de 1845. (Dean C. Jesse, ed., "Nauvoo Dairy of John Taylor", BYU Studies 23 [Summer 1983]: 34.) It subsequently appeared on the first gold coins minted in Utah in 1849 and 1850, as illustrated here. (Dean Jesse C., ed. "Nauvoo Lechera de John Taylor", Estudios de BYU23 [Verano 1983]: 34). Posteriormente, apareció en la primera lasmonedas de oro acuñadas en Utah en 1849 y 1850, como se ilustra aquí. Thissame relatively rare symbol is found in a superior positon on the titlepage of the 1682 edition of Jacob Boehme's collected "TheosophicalWorks" published at Amsterdam, a book important to German Pietist,strongly influenced by Rosicrucianism and by Boehme's kabbalisticallytoned writings, who immigrating to Pennsylvania during the eighteenthcentury. Este mismo símbolo es relativamente raro encontrar enuna posición superior en la portada de la edición de 1682 del JacobBoehme recogidos "Teosófica de Obras", publicado en Amsterdam, un libroimportante Pietist alemán, fuertemente influenciado por Rosicrucianismy Boehme kabbalistically tonos de escritos, que emigrar a Pensilvania,en el siglo XVIII. Jacob Böhme, Theosophishe Wercken (Amsterdam, 1682). Jacob Böhme, Theosophishe Wercken (Amsterdam, 1682).



Figure 8. Figura 8. MormonApostle and theologian Orson Pratt chose this unusual emblem (theAll-Seeing Eye within a heart) for the banner head of his paper, The Seer , published at Washington DC in 1853-4.Mormón apóstol y teólogo Orson Pratt eligió este inusual emblema (elAll-Seeing Eye dentro de un corazón) para la bandera de su cabeza elpapel, todo lo ve, y publicado en Washington DC en 1853-4. The figure is a near-exact replication of a Rosicrucian emblem from Daniel Cramer's Latin work, The True Society of Jesus and the Rosy Cross, published at Frankfurt in 1617. La cifra es casi una réplica exacta de un emblema de rosacruces Daniel Cramer's Latin trabajo, La verdadera de Jesús y la Cruz Rosy, publicado en Frankfurt en 1617. Thissmall work contained forty allegorical engravings developingRosicrucian themes, each associated with a scriptural verse and a motto.Este pequeño trabajo que figura alegórica cuarenta rosacruces temasgrabados en desarrollo, cada uno de ellos asociado con un versículobíblico y un lema. Tothis emblem was associated the verse "In thy light shall we see light"(Psalm 36:9), and the motto, "I see the light in your light, letdarkness be far away. He is wise who gains wisdom from the book of theLord." Con este emblema se asoció el verso "En tu luz vemos laluz" (Salmo 36:9), y el lema, "Veo la luz en su luz, la oscuridad sedeja muy lejos. Él es sabio que los beneficios de la sabiduría librodel Señor. " (Daniel Cramer, Iesu et Roseæ Crucis Vera: Decades quatuor emblematum sacrorum... (Frankfurt, 1617), reproduced in, The Rosicrucian Emblems of Daniel Cramer(Grand Rapids, MI: Phanes Press, 1991), 29.) The image of the Eyewithin the Heart again appeared in the 1682 edition of Jacob Boehme'scollected works. (Daniel Cramer, Iesu et Roseæ Crucis Vera: Decenios de quatuor emblematum sacrorum ... (Frankfurt, 1617), reproducido en El rosacruces Escudos de Daniel Cramer(Grand Rapids, MI: Phanes Press, 1991), 29.) La imagen de el ojo en elCorazón de nuevo apareció en la edición 1682 de Jacob Boehme de obras. (Frontispiece to Von Christi Testamenten, in (Frontispicio Von Testamenten Christi, en Jacob Böhme, Theosophishe Wercken [Amsterdam, 1682].) Jacob Böhme, Theosophishe Wercken [Amsterdam, 1682].)



Figure 9. Figura 9. The alchemical King and Queen, Rex and Regina, standing upon the dual eternal principals represented by sun and moon, join in the holy wedding, the hierosgamos. The image of this eternal, transformative union was perhaps mirrored in Joseph Smith's ritual of celestial marraige. El Rey y la Reina alquímico, Rex y Regina, de pie a la doble eterna representada por los directores de sol y la luna, unirse en el santo matrimonio, la HierosGamos. La imagen de esta eterna, la unión de transformación se refleja quizás en la de José Smith celestes ritual de matrimonio. Trismosin, "Splenor solis" (MS., 1582) Trismosin ", Splenor solis" (MS., 1582)



Figure 10. Figura 10. The1650 edition of a thirteenth century alchemical work by Albertus Magnuscontains one of the earliest allegorical representations of the keysymbols later subsumed by both Masonry and Mormonism: the compass andsquare. La edición 1650 de un trabajo alquímico siglo XIII porAlbertus Magnus contiene una de las primeras representacionesalegóricas de los principales símbolos más tarde absorbida por tanto laMasonería y el Mormonismo: la brújula y el cuadrado. Christ as Adam Kadmon appears within a sphere of light and dark, marked with the ubiquitous sun and moon, suggesting the complexio oppositorum manifest in creation. Cristo, como Adam Kadmon aparece dentro de una esfera de luz y de oscuridad, marcados con el omnipresente sol y la luna, lo que sugiere la complexio oppositorum manifiesto en la creación. Within his body are encircled the four primal elements: fire, air, water, and earth. Dentro de su cuerpo rodeado de los cuatro elementos primarios: fuego, aire, agua y tierra. Inthe four corners of the madala are placed symbols of the divine work:the compass, the square and ruler, the scale of justice, and (perhaps)the vessel of chrism--an anointing oil of mercy balanced against thescale of justice. En las cuatro esquinas de la madala se colocanlos símbolos de la obra divina: la brújula, la plaza y gobernante, lamagnitud de la justicia, y (quizás) el buque del crisma - un aceite deunción de misericordia equilibrada con la magnitud de la justicia. At the top appear the ten sacred numbers (represented also by the ten Sefiroth of Kabbalah) by which creation was mediated. En la parte superior aparecen los diez números sagrados (representado también por los diez de la Cabalá Sefiroth) por la que fue la creación de la mediación. Albertus Magnus, Philosophia naturalis (Basel, 1650). Albertus Magnus, Philosophia naturalis (Basilea, 1650).



Figure 11. Figura 11. The prophet being anointed by Elijah, as imaged in a 1619 work by the Rosicrucian and Christian Kabbalist, Robert Fludd. El profeta está ungido por Elías, como imágenes en un trabajo de 1619 por el rosacruces y cristianos Kabbalist, Robert Fludd. Fluddexplained: "The gift of prophecy can come directly from God, or elseindirectly, through the ministration of [spirits]. Examples are to befound in many biblical figures, and also in those of Antiquity, such asMercurius [Hermes] Trismegistus.... Just as the Sun shines perpetuallyon all men, so God incessantly offers his pearls of wisdom, and thosewho receive them become prophets. Robert Fludd, Utriusque Cosmi Maioris ... Tomi Secundi Tractatus primi (Frankfurt: Johann Theodore de Bry, 1619), 3-11.Fludd explicó: "El don de la profecía puede venir directamente de Dios,o bien indirectamente, a través de la administración de [espíritus]. Seencuentran ejemplos en muchas figuras bíblicas, así como en las de laAntigüedad, como Mercurius [Hermes] Trismegistus .... Así como el Solbrilla permanentemente en todos los hombres, por lo que Dios ofrece asus incesantemente perlas de sabiduría, y los que reciben a serprofetas. Robert Fludd, Utriusque Cosmi Maioris ... Tomi Secundi Tractatus primi (Frankfurt: Johann Theodore de Bry, 1619), 3-11.



Figure 12. Figura 12. TheKabbalistic "Tree of Life" from Fludd's 1621 Rosicrucian work, and the"Kingdom of God" as drawn by Orson Hyde in an 1847 number of the Millennial Star .El Kabbalistic "Árbol de la Vida" a partir de 1621 la Fludd rosacrucestrabajo, y el "Reino de Dios", como dibujado por Orson Hyde en 1847 unnúmero de la Estrella del Milenio. The crown represents Kether (which means in Hebrew "crown"), the first emanation of Divinity. La corona representa Kether (que en hebreo significa "corona"), la primera emanación de la Divinidad.






NOTES NOTAS

  1. Paul M. Edwards, "The Irony of Mormon History", in George D. Paul M. Edwards, "La ironía de la Historia de Mormón", en George D. Smith, ed., Faithful History (Salt Lake City: Signature Books, 1992), 26. Smith, ed., Fiel Historia (Salt Lake City: Firma Libros, 1992), 26.
  2. Harold Bloom, The American Religion: The Emergence of the Post-Christian Nation (New York: Simon & Shuster, 1992), 99, 105. Harold Bloom, La Religión de América: El Surgimiento de la post-cristiana Nation (Nueva York: Simon & Shuster, 1992), 99, 105.
  3. Moshe Idel, Kabbalah: New Perspectives (New Haven, CT: Yale University Press, 1988), 260. Moshe IDEL, la Cabalá: nuevas perspectivas (New Haven, CT: Yale University Press, 1988), 260.
  4. Gershom Scholem, Major Trends in Jewish Mysticism (New York: Schocken Books, 1974), 21. Gershom Scholem, las principales tendencias en el misticismo judío (Nueva York: Schocken Libros, 1974), 21.
  5. For a discussion of the antiquity of Kabbalah and Kabbalistic myth, also see Yehuda Liebes, Studies in Jewish Myth and Jewish Messianism (Albany, NY: SUNY Press, 1993), 65-92. Para una discusión de la antigüedad de la Cabalá y Kabbalistic mito, también Yehuda Liebes, estudios judíos en Mito y mesianismo judío (Albany, NY: SUNY Press, 1993), 65-92.
  6. G. Scholem, On the Kabbalah and Its Symbolism (New York: Schocken Books, 1965), 97; Scholem, Major Trends, 75. G. Scholem, en la Cábala y su simbolismo (Nueva York: Schocken Libros, 1965), 97; Scholem, las tendencias principales, 75.
  7. For example, see David J. Halperin, The Faces of the Chariot: Early Jewish Responses to Ezekiel's Vision (Tübingen: JC Mohr, 1988); Peter Schafer, GershomScholem Reconsidered: The Aim and Purpose of Early Jewish Mysticism,the Twelfth Sacks Lecture Delivered on 29th May 1985 (Oxford, Eng.:Oxford Centre for Postgraduate Hebrew Studies, 1986), 3; David Flusser,"Scholem's Recent Book on Merkabah Literature," Journal of Jewish Studies 11 (1960): 65; Ithamar Gruenwald, "Jewish Merkavah Mysticism and Gnosticism," in Studies in Jewish Mysticism, eds. Por ejemplo, véase David J. Halperin, los rostros de los Chariot: Temprano judío Ezequiel respuestas a la Visión (Tubinga: JC Mohr, 1988), Peter Schafer, GershomScholem Reconsidered: el objeto y la finalidad de la Primera misticismojudío, la Duodécima Conferencia Sacos emitido el 29 de mayo de 1985(Oxford, Inglaterra.: Oxford Centro de Estudios de Postgrado hebreo,1986), 3; David Flusser, "Scholem del reciente libro sobre MerkabahLiteratura", Revista de Estudios Judíos 11 (1960): 65; Ithamar Gruenwald, " Merkavah misticismo judío y Gnosticismo, "en Estudios en el misticismo judío, eds. Joseph Dan and Frank Talmage (Cambridge, MA: Association for Jewish Studies, 1982), 41-55. Joseph Frank y Dan Talmage (Cambridge, MA: La Asociación de Estudios Judaicos, 1982), 41-55. Dan Merkur reviews these objections in Gnosis: An Esoteric Tradition of Mystical Visions and Unions (Albany, NY: SUNY Press, 1993), 155-80. Dan Merkur comentarios en estas objeciones Gnosis: Una Tradición Esotérica místico de visiones y los sindicatos (Albany, NY: SUNY Press, 1993), 155-80.
  8. CG Jung, Psychological Types (Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press, 1971), 242. CG Jung, Tipos Psicológicos (Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press, 1971), 242.
  9. For a recent summary of these approaches, see Merkur's chapter "Defining Gnosis," 111-16. Para un resumen reciente de estos enfoques, véase el capítulo Merkur "Definición de la Gnosis", 111-16. Couliano provides a variant but equally insightful view, emphasizing the theory of independent reoccurrence in Ioan Couliano, The Tree of Gnosis: Gnostic Mythology from Early Christianity to Modern Nihilism (San Francisco: Harper, 1990), 23-63; also see Stephan Hoeller, "What is a Gnostic?" Gnosis: A Journal of Western Inner Traditions 23 (Spring 1992): 24-27.Couliano prevé una variante pero igualmente perspicaz punto de vista,haciendo hincapié en la teoría de la repetición independiente en IoanCouliano, El árbol de la Gnosis: Mitología gnóstica del cristianismo a partir de principios de nihilismo moderno (San Francisco: Harper, 1990), 23-63; también Stephan Hoeller, "¿Qué es un gnóstico?" Gnosis: A Journal of Western Interior Tradiciones 23 (Primavera 1992): 24-27.
  10. Merkur, 116. Merkur, 116.
  11. Threetraditions historically linked to the Gnostic milieu of antiquity areoften listed as agents of this transmission: Kabbalah, Hermetism, andAlchemy. Tres tradiciones históricamente vinculadas a lagnóstica medio de la antigüedad son mencionados a menudo como agentesde este envío: Cábala, Hermetismo, y Alquimia.
  12. Underpinningthis declaration is an assertion that men can have experiences--callthem intuitions or visions--that carry revelatory power and the savorof divine origin. En que esta declaración es una afirmación deque los hombres pueden tener experiencias - llamamos intuiciones ovisiones - que llevan reveladora saborear el poder y de origen divino. It was the topography of this experience that the Kabbalist sought to explore, and perhaps to map. Es la topografía de esta experiencia que el Kabbalist tratado de explorar, y quizás a mapa. See Idel, Kabballah, 29. Ver IDEL, Kabballah, 29.
  13. Idel, Kabbalah, 59-73. IDEL, la Cabalá, 59-73.
  14. Moshe Idel, ed., Studies in Ecstatic Kabbalah (Albany, NY: SUNY Press, 1988), 1-31. Moshe IDEL, ed., Estudios de Cabalá extático (Albany, NY: SUNY Press, 1988), 1-31.
  15. Scholem, On the Kabbalah, 94; see also Scholem, Major Trends, 225. Scholem, en la Cábala, 94, véase también Scholem, las tendencias principales, 225.
  16. See Scholem, On the Kabbalah, 155. Véase Scholem, en la Cábala, 155. MosheIdel discusses the sexual polarity of divine qualities in Jewishmystical tradition. Most striking of such evidence is the image of thecherubim that adorned the Arc of the Covenant in the Holy of Holies inthe Temple of Solomon. Moshe IDEL discute la polaridad sexual decualidades divinas en la tradición mística judía. Lo más sorprendentede estas pruebas es la imagen de los querubines que adornaban el Arcodel Pacto en el Santo de los Santos en el Templo de Salomón. In talmudic tradition the cherubim were male and female and were sometimes found in sexual embrace (see G. Scholem, Kabbalah [New York: Dorset Press, 1987], 130). En la tradición talmúdica querubines eran hombres y mujeres y se encuentran a veces en abrazo sexual (véase G. Scholem, la Cabalá [Nueva York: Dorset Press, 1987], 130). TheTalmud states, "When the Israelites came up on the pilgram Festivalsthe curtain would be removed for them and the cherubim shown to them,their bodies interlocked with one another, and they would say to them,`Look, you are beloved of God as the love between man and woman'" (Yoma54a, Bababatra 99a). El Talmud dice: "Cuando vinieron losisraelitas en la pilgram Fiestas de la cortina sería eliminado paraellos y los querubines se muestra a ellos, sus cuerpos entrelazados eluno con el otro, y que les dicen,` Mira, eres amado de Dios como elamor entre hombre y mujer ' "(Yoma 54a, Bababatra 99 bis). For a detailed discussion of the symbolic history of the cherubim and this sexual image, see Raphael Patai, The Hebrew Goddess, 3d ed. Para un análisis detallado de la historia simbólica de los querubines y esta imagen sexual, véase Rafael Patai, La Diosa hebreo, 3d ed. (Detroit: Wayne State University Press, 1990), 67-95. (Detroit: Wayne State University Press, 1990), 67-95.
  17. Scholem, On the Kabbalah, 103-104. Scholem, en la Cábala, 103-104. EachHebrew letter has a numerical value; words carry the value of the sumof their letters. These numerical sums are used in Kabbalah to extractvarious relationship and occult meanings from biblical texts, apractice called gematria. The numerical value of the Tetragrammaton(the name of God composed of the four letters, Yod he vav he , and read as Yahweh or Jehovah) is 45, exactly the same value carried by the name Adam; thus "Jehovah" = "Adam."Hebreo cada letra tiene un valor numérico, es decir llevar el valor dela suma de sus letras. Numérica Estas sumas se utilizan en la Cabalápara extraer diversas relaciones y los significados ocultos de lostextos bíblicos, una práctica llamada Gematria. El valor numérico de laTetragrammaton (el nombre de Dios compuesto de cuatro letras, Yod VAV que él, y leer como Yahvé o Jehová) es de 45, exactamente el mismo valor que llevan los nombre de Adán, por lo que "Jehová" = "Adam".
  18. Scholem, Kabbalah, 190. Scholem, la Cabalá, 190.
  19. Frances A. Yates, The Occult Philosophy in the Elizabethan Age (London: Routledge & Kegan Paul, 1979), 3-4. Frances A. Yates, La filosofía oculta en la edad isabelina (Londres: Routledge & Kegan Paul, 1979), 3-4.
  20. ThoughKabbalah entered into the Christian consciousness mostly by passivetransmission and assimilation, this was not always so. Aunqueentró en la Cabalá la conciencia cristiana principalmente portransmisión pasiva y la asimilación, esto no siempre fue así. Abraham Abulafia, a seminal thirteenth-century Kabbalist, considered himself a prophet sent to Jew and gentile. Abraham Abulafia, un seminal del siglo XIII Kabbalist, se consideró un profeta enviado a Judio y gentil. Thisbelief led him--despite warnings he would be burned at the stake--toRome in 1280 on an ill-fated quest for audience with Pope Nicholas III,an adventure from which he escaped alive only by the good fortune ofthe Pope's sudden death. Esta creencia le llevó - a pesar de lasadvertencias que sería quemado en la hoguera - a Roma en 1280 en unmalogrado intento de audiencia con el Papa Nicolás III, una aventura dela que escaparon con vida sólo por la buena fortuna de la repentina delPapa muerte. (Idel, The Mystical Experience in Abraham Abulafia, 3). (IDEL, la experiencia mística de Abraham Abulafia, 3). Fromthe end of the thirteenth century, a number of Jewish converts toChristianity also brought with them into the gentile fold a knowledgeof Kabbalah and christological speculations on Kabbalistic texts(Scholem, Kabbalah, 197). The works of Catalan philosopher andChristian mystic Raymond Lull (1232-ca. 1316) witness that elements ofKabbalah began penetrating Christian thought as early as 1300. Apartir de finales del siglo XIII, un número de judíos conversos alcristianismo también trajeron con ellos en el gentil veces elconocimiento de la Cabalá y cristológico especulaciones sobre textosKabbalistic (Scholem, la Cabalá, 197). Las obras del catalánfilósofo y místico cristiano Raymond Lull (1232-ca. 1316) testigo deque los elementos de la Cabalá penetrar el pensamiento cristiano seinició ya en 1300. Lullexhibits the influence of several Kabbalistic concepts on his quest todevelop a universal system of science and religion--a philosophy hehoped would reconcile religious conflicts among Jews, Moslems, andChristians (Yates, The Occult Philosophy, 17-22). Lullpresenta la influencia de varios conceptos Kabbalistic en su búsquedapara desarrollar un sistema universal de la ciencia y la religión - unafilosofía espera conciliar los conflictos religiosos entre los Judios,musulmanes y cristianos (Yates, La filosofía oculta, 17-22).
  21. Walter Scott, ed., Hermetica (Boston: Shambhala, 1993), 31-2. Walter Scott, ed., Hermetica (Boston: Shambhala, 1993), 31-2. Throughpatristic sources the name Hermes Trismegistos was well known in theMiddle Ages; Roger Bacon called him "Father of Philosophers." Através de fuentes patrísticas el nombre de Hermes Trismegistos era bienconocido en la Edad Media; Roger Bacon le llamó "Padre de losfilósofos". The meaning of "Thrice-Great" was variously explained. El significado de "Tres veces-Gran" fue diversamente explicada. MarcilioFicino suggests it refers to his triple capacity of priest,philosopher, and king, a divine triad that recurs in variousmanifestations throughout the Hermetic-Kabbalistic tradition (includingperhaps the 1844 coronation of the Joseph Smith). MarcilioFicino sugiere que se refiere a su capacidad de triple sacerdote,filósofo, y el rey, una triada divina que se repite en diversasmanifestaciones en toda la tradición Hermética-Kabbalistic (incluyendoquizás el 1844 de la coronación de José Smith). See Frances A. Yates, Giordano Bruno and the Hermetic Tradition (Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1964), 48-49. Véase Frances A. Yates, Giordano Bruno y la Tradición Hermética (Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1964), 48-49.
  22. In 1614 Isaac Casaubon correctly dated the works to the early Christian centuries. En 1614 Isaac Casaubon correctamente de las obras a principios de los siglos cristianos. This, however, did not entirely or quickly penetrate into the more devoted Hermetic circles. Esto, sin embargo, no del todo o penetrar rápidamente en el más hermético dedicado círculos. See Yates, Giordano Bruno, 16, 398-431. Véase Yates, Giordano Bruno, 16, 398-431.
  23. Corpus Hermeticum I, Poimandres, 21 (this translation in Yates, Giordano Bruno, 25). Corpus Hermeticum I, Poimandres, 21 (esta traducción en Yates, Giordano Bruno, 25).
  24. Corpus Hermeticum XIII (Yates, 29). Corpus Hermeticum XIII (Yates, 29).
  25. Yates, The Occult Philosophy, 17-22. Yates, La filosofía oculta, 17-22. Yates provides an earlier and more tentative evaluation, but with great detail, in Giordano Bruno, 84-129. Yates establece un antes y más la evaluación provisional, pero con gran detalle, en Giordano Bruno, 84-129. Scholem gives a summary, from the view of Jewish Kabbalah, in Kabbalah, 196-203. Scholem se ofrece un resumen, desde el punto de vista de la Cabalá judía, en la Cabalá, 196-203.
  26. Scholem, Kabbalah, 197. Scholem, la Cabalá, 197.
  27. Yates, Giordano Bruno, 86. Yates, Giordano Bruno, 86.
  28. See ibid., 85. Ibíd., 85.
  29. Yates, Occult Philosophy, 14. Yates, oculta Filosofía, 14.
  30. Ibid., 19. Ibíd., 19.
  31. The Tabula smaragdina or "Emerald Tablet" was supposedly engraved by Trismegistos himself with the essence of all truth. La Tabula smaragdina o "Tabla de Esmeralda" fue supuestamente grabada por Trismegistos mismo con la esencia de toda la verdad. Itscontent was known to medieval scholars, and this, its central dictum,is often repeated in Hermetic writings from the Renaissance on.Su contenido era conocido por los estudiosos medievales, y este, sucentro de dictamen, se repite a menudo en los escritos herméticos desdeel Renacimiento en. As with other Hermetic texts, the Tabula smaragdina probably dates to the first or second century CE Como ocurre con otros textos Hermética, la Tabula smaragdina se remonta probablemente a la primera o la segunda siglo CE
  32. Robert Fludd, Utriusque Cosmi Maioris . Robert Fludd, Utriusque Cosmi Maioris. . . . (Oppenheim: Johann Theodore de Bry, 1617), sec. . (Oppenheim: Johann Theodore de Bry, 1617), sec. a, 145, translation in Joscelyn Godwin, Robert Fludd: Hermetic Philosopher and Surveyor of Two Worlds (London: Thames and Hudson, 1979), 14. uno, 145, traducción de Joscelyn Godwin, Robert Fludd: Hermética Filósofo y Agrimensor de Dos Mundos (Londres: Thames and Hudson, 1979), 14.
  33. In Joseph Smith's translation of the Book of Genesis, begun in 1831, one finds a clear parallel. José Smith en la traducción del libro del Génesis, que se inició en 1831, se encuentra un claro paralelismo. Smithgives this new reading for Genesis 2:5-9: "For I the Lord God, createdall things of which I have spoken, spiritually, before they werenaturally upon the face of the earth . . . for in heaven created Ithem, and there was not yet flesh upon the earth . . . . all thingswere before created, but spiritually were they created and made,according to my word." Smith da esta nueva lectura de Génesis2:5-9: "Porque yo el Señor Dios, creó todas las cosas de que hehablado, espiritual, antes de que fueran naturalmente sobre la faz dela tierra... En el cielo creado para ellos yo , y aún no había carnesobre la tierra.... antes de todas las cosas fueron creadas, peroespiritualmente se han creado y hecho, de acuerdo con mi palabra ". InGenesis 6:66 he continues the idea, "And behold, all things have theirlikeness . . . . both things which are temporal and things which arespiritual; things which are in the heavens above, and things which areon the earth...both above and beneath, all things bear record of me."En Génesis 6:66, continúa la idea, "Y he aquí, todas las cosas tienensu semejanza.... Las dos cosas que son temporales y cosas que sonespirituales; cosas que están en los cielos arriba, y las cosas queestán en la tierra. .. tanto por encima como por debajo, llevarregistro de todas las cosas de mí. " ( Joseph Smith's "New Translation" of the Bible, [Independence, MO: Herald Publishing House, 1970], 30.) Brigham Youngdeveloped the idea: "We cannot talk about spiritual things withoutconnecting with them temporal things, neither can we talk abouttemporal things without connecting spiritual things with them. They areinseparably connected...." (José Smith de la "Nueva traducción de la Biblia,[Independencia, MO: Herald Publishing House, 1970], 30.) Brigham Youngdesarrollaron la idea:" No podemos hablar de cosas espirituales, sinconexión con ellos las cosas temporales, ni se puede hablar acerca delas cosas temporales, sin conexión de las cosas espirituales con ellos.Ellos están inseparablemente conectado ...." LeonardArrington emphasized the importance of this concept for anunderstanding of early Mormonism's evolution: "Joseph Smith and otherearly Mormon leaders seem to have seen every part of life, and everyproblem put to them, as part of an integrated universe in whichmaterialities and immaterialities were of equal standing, orindistinguishable, in God's kingdom. Religion was relevant toeconomics, politics, art, and science." (Leonard Arringtion, Great Basin Kingdom: Economic History of the Latter-Day Saints[Cambridge: Harvard University Press, 1958; reprinted Lincoln:University of Nebraska Press], 5-6.) It is a view closely parallel bythe Hermetic tradition. Leonard Arrington destacó la importanciade este concepto para la comprensión de la evolución tempranaMormonismo: "José Smith y otros principios de Mormón líderes parecenhaber visto cada parte de la vida, y todos los problemas que se les,como parte de un universo en el que materialities y immaterialitieseran de la misma categoría, o de distinguir, en el reino de Dios. Lareligión es importante para la economía, la política, el arte y laciencia. "(Leonard Arringtion, Gran Cuenca Reino: Historia Económica de los Últimos Días Santos[Cambridge: Harvard University Press, 1958; reimpreso Lincoln:University of Nebraska Press], 5-6). Es una vista muy de cerca por latradición Hermética.
  34. The Latin terms used were sciencia, intellectus and mens. Los términos utilizados fueron Latina sciencia, intellectus y hombres.
  35. See Peter French, John Dee: The World of an Elizabethan Magus (New York: Dorset Press, 1972), 19. Véase Peter francés, John Dee: El mundo de un Mago isabelino (Nueva York: Dorset Press, 1972), 19.
  36. Yates, Giordano Bruno, 88. Yates, Giordano Bruno, 88.
  37. See Moshe Idel, "Jewish Magic from the Renaissance Period to Early Hasidism," in Jacob Neusner, ed., Religion, Science and Magic in Concert and in Conflict (New York: Oxford University Press, 1989), 83. Ver Moshe IDEL, "Magic judía de la época del Renacimiento temprano a Hasidism", en Jacob Neusner, ed., Religión, Ciencia y magia en concierto y en los conflictos (Nueva York: Oxford University Press, 1989), 83.
  38. Thelegacy of this strange vision, itself transmuted, was a foundation ofthe science leading our own age to summon from a metamorphosis ofmathematical symbols the dread dream of nuclear fire. El legadode esta extraña visión, en sí transmuta, es una fundación de la cienciaconduce a nuestra propia edad de convocar a una metamorfosis de lossímbolos matemáticos temor sueño nuclear de fuego.
  39. Yates, Occult Philosophy, 46. Yates, oculta Filosofía, 46.
  40. Stanislas Klossowski de Rola, Alchemy: The Secret Art (London: Thames and Hudson, 1973), 7. Stanislas Klossowski de Rola, Alchemy: The Secret Art (Londres: Thames and Hudson, 1973), 7.
  41. Althougha few authors (the most notable being CG Jung) have seen alchemy as adirect offspring of classical Gnosticism, this is problematic.Aunque algunos autores (entre las que destacan CG Jung) han visto laalquimia, como consecuencia directa de la descendencia clásicagnosticismo, esto es problemático. For a critique of this view and a summary of Gnostic elements in alchemy, see Merkur, 37-110. Para una crítica de esta opinión y un resumen de los elementos de la alquimia gnóstica, véase Merkur, 37-110.
  42. Theworks of Magnus remained important to seventeenth-century alchemicalscholars, as evidenced by the inclusion of two of his works in theinfluential compendium Theatrum Chemicum , vol. Lasobras de Magnus permaneció importante del siglo XVII alquímicoacadémicos, como demuestra la inclusión de dos de sus obras en elinfluyente compendio Theatrum Chemicum, vol. 2 (Usel, 1602), xxii, and vol. 2 (Usel, 1602), XXII, y vol. 4 (Strasbourg, 1613), xxxvii; another of his alchemical works was published as late as 1650: Albertus Magnus, Philosophia naturalis (Basel, 1650). 4 (Estrasburgo, 1613), xxxvii; otra de sus obras alquímica se publicó en fecha tan tardía como 1650: Albertus Magnus, Philosophia naturalis (Basilea, 1650). (See figure 9.) Several alchemical treatises were attributed to Aquinas. Though probably all pseudoepigraphic, the Aurora Consurgensdoes date to a time close to his death in 1274 and could have been byhis hand (as von Franz believes) or from the school surrounding him.(Véase la figura 9.) Varios alquímico tratados fueron atribuidos aSanto Tomás de Aquino. Aunque probablemente todos pseudoepigraphic, Aurora Consurgenshace tiempo a una fecha cercana a su muerte en 1274 y podría haber sidopor su mano (como Franz von cree) o de la escuela que lo rodea. Marie-Louise von Franz, Aurora Consurgens: A Document Attributed to Thomas Aquinas on the Problem of Opposites in Alchemy (New York: Princeton University Press, Bollingen Series LXXVII, 1966). Marie-Louise von Franz, Aurora Consurgens: Un documento atribuido a Thomas Aquinas sobre el problema de los opuestos en la Alquimia (Nueva York: Princeton University Press, Serie Bollingen LXXVII, 1966).
  43. Richard S. Westfall, The Life of Isaac Newton , (New York: Cambridge University Press, 1993), 141-6. Richard S. Westfall, La vida de Isaac Newton, (Nueva York: Cambridge University Press, 1993), 141-6. Frank E. Manuel, A Portrait of Isaac Newton (Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 1968), 160-90. Frank E. Manuel, un retrato de Isaac Newton (Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 1968), 160-90. A summary, with references, on the alchemical studies of Locke and Newton appears in, Quinn, Early Mormonism and the Magic World View, 10. Un resumen, con referencias, sobre la alquimia de los estudios de Newton y Locke aparece en, Quinn, Mormonismo temprana y la magia del mundo de 10. Yatessuggests, "Behind the great exoteric movement typified by Newton'sachievements in the fields of mathematics and physics, there was alsoan esoteric movement, connected with the exoteric movement through theimportance which it attached to number, but developing this throughanother approach to nature, the approach through alchemy" ( Rosicrucian Enlightenment, 204).Yates sugiere, "Detrás de la gran circulación exotéricos caracterizapor Newton logros en los campos de las matemáticas y la física, tambiénhubo un movimiento esotérico, relacionados con la circulación a travésde exotéricas la importancia que concede a número, pero el desarrollode este enfoque a través de otra naturaleza , el enfoque a través de laalquimia "(Ilustración rosacruces, 204).
  44. Edward F. Edinger, Goethe's Faust: Notes for a Jungian Commentary (Toronto: Inner City Books, 1990), 9. Edward F. Edinger, Fausto de Goethe: Apuntes para un Jung Comentario (Toronto: el centro de la ciudad Libros, 1990), 9.
  45. CG Jung, Alchemical Studies (Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press, 1967), 140. CG Jung, alquímico Estudios (Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press, 1967), 140. Theconcept of matter as uncreated caused considerable tension during theearly Christian centuries, the period of alchemy's earliest evolution.El concepto de la materia como increada causado tensión en los primerossiglos cristianos, el período antes de la alquimia de la evolución. Augustine attributed the idea to the Manichaeans ( De Actis cum Felice , 1:18) and specifically attacked the concept of co-eternal matter and spirit expressed by Simon ( Contra Faustum, XXI, 1, in Willis Barnstone, ed., The Other Bible: Jewish Pseudepigrapha, Christian Apocrypha, Gnostic Scripture [San Francisco: Harper & Row, 1987], 680). Agustín atribuye la idea a la Manichaeans (cum Actis De Felice, 1:18) y, concretamente, atacó el concepto de co-eterno asunto y el espíritu expresado por Simon (Contra Faustum, XXI, 1, en Barnstone Willis, ed., El Otro Biblia : Pseudepigrapha judía, cristiana Apocrypha, Gnóstico Escritura [de San Francisco: Harper & Row, 1987], 680). Thata figure named "Faust" would subsequently emerge as the archetypalliterary image of the alchemist is a complex and interesting historicalside note to Augustine's comments. Que una cifra llamada"Fausto" posteriormente emerge como arquetipo de la imagen literaria dela alquimista es un complejo e interesante nota histórica a Agustín dela Comisión. Hippolytusattacked this same heresy expressed by the Gnostic Hermogenes (a namemeaning "born of Hermes"): "God created all things from coexistent andungenerated matter" ( Refutation of All Heresies, 7:10, 10:24).Hipólito atacó esta misma expresada por la herejía gnóstica Hermógenes(un nombre que significa "nacido de Hermes"): "Dios creó todas lascosas coexistentes y de ungenerated cuestión" (La refutación de todas las herejías, 7:10, 10:24). Theconcept of the increatum as the mother of all created things is fullydeveloped in later alchemy, particularly in the work of Paracelsus; fora discussion, see CG Jung, Psychology and Alchemy, 2d ed.El concepto de la increatum como la madre de todas las cosas creadas seencuentra plenamente desarrollada más tarde en la alquimia,especialmente en los trabajos de Paracelso; para una discusión, véaseCG Jung, Psicología y Alquimia, 2d ed. (Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press, 1968), 320-23. (Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press, 1968), 320-23.
  46. Thatthe stone was the "pearl of great price" is evidenced by the earlysixteenth-century Aldine edition of a treatise by Giano Luciano, The New Pearl of Great Price: A Treatise Concerning the Treasure and Most Precious Stone of the Philosophers .Que la piedra fue la "perla de gran precio" se pone de manifiesto enlos primeros del siglo XVI Aldine edición de un tratado por GianoLuciano, La Nueva Perla de Gran Precio: Tratado del Tesoro y se refiere a la mayoría de las piedras preciosas de los filósofos. . . . , trans. ., Trad. AE Waite (London, 1894). AE Waite (Londres, 1894). I know of no association between this metaphor and the Mormon Pearl of Great Price, first published in London in 1852. No sé de ninguna asociación entre esta metáfora y la Mormón Perla de Gran Precio, publicado por primera vez en Londres en 1852.
  47. In alchemy, the stone was the "orphan"; the term "son of the widow," now associated with Masonry, may be of Manichaean origin.En la alquimia, la piedra fue el "huérfano", el término "hijo de laviuda", ahora asociada a la Masonería, pueden ser de origen maniquea. For an evaluation of this theme in alchemy, see Jung, Mysterium Coniunctionis, 17 ff. Para una evaluación de este tema en la alquimia, véase Jung, Mysterium Coniunctionis, 17 ss.
  48. The best recent scholarly summary of the Rosicrucian movement is in Francis Yates, The Rosicrucian Enlightenment (London: Routledge & Kegan Paul, 1972). El mejor resumen de los últimos eruditos rosacruces el movimiento se efectúa de Francis Yates, El rosacruces Ilustración (Londres: Routledge & Kegan Paul, 1972). Still useful, though dated, is Arthur Edward Waite's The Real History of the Rosicrucians (London: George Redway, 1887). Todavía útiles, aunque de fecha, es Arthur Edward Waite El Real de la Historia de la Rosa (Londres: George Redway, 1887). Inthese comments I rely heavily on Yates and her analysis of themovement, but I emphasize that all scholarship on this realm ofhistory--including the work of Yates--involves conjecture andinterpretation. En estas observaciones que dependen en granmedida de Yates y su análisis del movimiento, pero hago hincapié en quetodas las becas en este reino de la historia - incluyendo el trabajo deYates - implica conjetura y la interpretación.
  49. Yates, The Rosicrucian Enlightenment, 42. Yates, rosacruces La Ilustración, 42.
  50. All quotations above from the Famaare from the English translation of the manifestos published by ThomasVaughn in 1652, as corrected and presented by Yates in her appendix to The Rosicrucian Enlightenment, 238-51. Todas las cotizaciones por encima de la Famason de la traducción al Inglés de los manifiestos publicados por ThomasVaughn en 1652, corregida y presentada por Yates en su apéndice a El rosacruces Ilustración, 238-51. The texts of the original Vaughn translations, as well as the 1690 Foxcroft translation of the Chymical Wedding which Yates omits, appear in Waite. Los textos del original Vaughn traducciones, así como el 1690 Foxcroft traducción de la boda que Chymical Yates omite, aparecerá en Waite.
  51. See Yates, The Rosicrucian Enlightenment, 49. Véase Yates, rosacruces La Ilustración, 49.
  52. Yates, The Rosicrucian Enlightenment, 45. Yates, rosacruces La Ilustración, 45. The full title, as given by Vaughn, is ConfessioFraternitatis or The Confession of the Laudable Fraternity of the MostHonorable Order of the Rosy Cross, Written to All the Learned of Europe , in Yates, 251. El título completo, tal como se indica por Vaughn, es confessioFraternitatis o la confesión de la loable fraternidad de la mayoría dela Honorable Orden de Rosy Cruz, por escrito a todos los aprendidas deEuropa, en Yates, 251.
  53. Confessio Fraternitatis, in Yates, The Rosicrucian Enlightenment, 256-57. Confessio Fraternitatis, en Yates, rosacruces La Ilustración, 256-57.
  54. This text is from the first English translation, The Hermetic Romance: or The Chymical Wedding, trans. Este texto es de la primera traducción Inglés, El romance Hermético: o La Boda Chymical, trad. E. Foxcrort (London, 1690), reprinted in Waite, 101. E. Foxcrort (Londres, 1690), reimpreso en Waite, 101.
  55. So proclaimed the Fama, "...for Europe is with child and will bring forth a strong child, who shall stand in need of a great godfather's gift." Así proclamó la Fama, "... es para Europa y con los niños a luz un niño fuerte, que están en necesidad de un gran regalo del padrino".
  56. Christian Knorr von Rosenroth (d. 1689) traveled widely throughout Europe. Christian Knorr von Rosenroth († 1689) viajó ampliamente por toda Europa. Havingbeen greatly impressed by the writings of Jacob Boehme, he laterinfluenced the Cambridge philosopher Henry More, the Rosicrucian mysticFranciscus Mercurius Van Helmont, and the philosopher Leibnitz.Habiendo sido muy impresionado por los escritos de Jacob Boehme, quemás tarde influyó en el filósofo Henry Más de Cambridge, el místicorosacruces Franciscus Mercurius Van Helmont, y el filósofo Leibniz. Duringhis last two decades, his role as a senior official and close adviserto Prince Christian August in Sulzbach, Bavaria, gave him prominence inbroader cultural and political circles as well. Durante sus dosúltimas décadas, su papel como un alto funcionario y asesor cercano aPrince Christian agosto en Sulzbach, Baviera, le dio mayor importanciaen los círculos culturales y políticos también. His Kabbalah Denudata, The Kabbalah Unveiled, or The Transcendental, Metaphysical, and Theological Teachings of the Jews was published in Sulzbach in two large volumes, 1677-84. Su denudata Cabalá, La Cabalá Revelada, o lo trascendental, metafísicas, teológicas y enseñanzas de los Judios se publicó en Sulzbach en dos grandes volúmenes, 1677-84. Scholem, Kabbalah, 416-18. Scholem, la Cabalá, 416-18. Acomplete English translation of this important work has yet to beaccomplished, but an excerpt appeared in SL McGregor Mather, The Kabbalah Unveiled (London, 1887).Una traducción completa en Inglés de este importante trabajo aún no seha logrado, pero un fragmento aparecido en SL McGregor Mather, La Cabalá Revelada (Londres, 1887).
  57. Yates, The Rosicrucian Enlightenment, 200-202. Yates, rosacruces La Ilustración, 200-202.
  58. Thiswas in line with the declared Rosicrucian program: "Also we do testifythat under the name of Chymia many books and pictures are set forth inContumeliam gloriae Die. . . . And we pray all learned men to take heedof these kind of books" ( Fama Fraternitatis, in Yates, The Rosicrucian Enlightenment , 250).Esto está en consonancia con el programa rosacruces declarado: "Tambiénnosotros testimonio de que con el nombre de Chymia muchos libros yfotografías se exponen en Contumeliam Die gloriae.... Y oramos todoslos hombres aprendieron a tener en cuenta este tipo de libros "(Fama Fraternitatis, en Yates, rosacruces La Ilustración, 250). The Confessioexplains further that the books are "so we may verily foreknow andforesee the darkness of obscurations of the Church, and how long theyshall last. From the which characters of letters we have borrowed ourmagic writing, and have found out, and made, a new language forourselves, in the which withall is expressed and declared the nature ofall things. . . . We speak unto you by parables, but would willinglybring you to the right, simple, easy and ingenuous exposition,understanding, declaration and knowledge of all secrets" ( Confessio Fraternitatis , in Yates, The Rosicrucian Enlightenment, 257, 259). La confessioexplica además que los libros son "lo que podemos en verdad foreknow yprever la oscuridad de obscurations de la Iglesia, y cuánto tiempodurará. De los personajes de las cartas que nos han prestado nuestrosmagia escrito, y han descubierto, y hecho, un nuevo idioma paranosotros, en el que se expresa Con todas y declaró la naturaleza detodas las cosas.... Hablamos de vosotros por parábolas, sino quevoluntariamente traerle a la derecha, simple, ingenua y fácil deexposición, la comprensión, declaración y el conocimiento de todos lossecretos "(confessio Fraternitatis, en Yates, La Ilustración rosacruces, 257, 259). Adetailed survey of the evolution of this hieroglyphic tradition duringthe sixteenth and seventeenth centuries, along with reproductions ofits principal works, appears in Stanislas Klossowski de Rola, The Golden Game: Alchemical Engravings of the Seventeenth Century (New York: George Braziller, 1988).Un estudio detallado de la evolución de esta tradición durantejeroglíficos los siglos XVI y XVII, junto con reproducciones de susprincipales obras, aparece en Stanislas Klossowski de Rola, El Juego de Oro: Grabados alquímicos del siglo XVII (Nueva York: George Braziller, 1988 ),. Alarge collection of alchemical engravings and pictures, along with acomplex historical and psychological critique, is found in CG Jung's Psychology and Alchemy (Princetion, NJ: Princetion University Press, 1968).Una gran colección de grabados y fotografías alquímico, junto con uncomplejo histórico y psicológico crítica, se encuentra en la psicología de CG Jung y la Alquimia (Princetion, NJ: Princetion University Press, 1968).
  59. See Confessio Fraternitatis , in Yates, The Rosicrucian Enlightenment, 254-55. Ver confessio Fraternitatis, en Yates, rosacruces La Ilustración, 254-55.
  60. WritesElias Ashmole, "And certainly he to whom the whole course of Naturelyes open rejoyceth not so much that he can make Gold or Silver or theDivells [devils] to become subject to him, as that hee sees the Heavensopen, the Angells of God Ascending and Descending, and that his ownname is fairely written in the Book of Life" ("Prolegomenia," in Theatrum Chemicum Bitannicum [London, 1652]).Elias Ashmole escribe, "Y sin duda que a quien todo el curso de laNaturaleza lejías abierto rejoyceth no tanto que él puede hacer de oroo de plata o la Divells [demonios] a ser objeto de él, ya que consideraque el hee Cielos abiertos, la angells de Dios, ascendente ydescendente y que su propio nombre es fairely escrito en el Libro de laVida "(" Prolegomenia ", en Theatrum Chemicum Bitannicum [Londres, 1652]).
  61. Asymbol's "meaning" is perpetually open to interpretation, but in thisparticular case there is strong historical precedent for assuming adeeper allegorical text. Un símbolo del "significado" espermanentemente abierto a la interpretación, pero en este casoparticular hay una fuerte precedente histórico para la asunción de untexto más profundo alegóricas. Thisexact metaphor of the honey bee as the alchemist and the hive as thealchemical retort is presented on the title page of Michael Maier's Examen fucorum (Frankfurt: Nicholas Hoffman for Theodor de Bry, 1617), facsimile in Klossowski de Rola, The Golden Game, 65.Esta exacta metáfora de la abeja como el alquimista y de la colmenacomo la retorta alquímica se presenta en la página del título deMichael Maier del Examen fucorum (Frankfurt: Nicholas Hoffman de Theodor de Bry, 1617), por fax en Klossowski de Rola, El Juego de Oro , 65. (SeeFig. 5.) The bee and beehive seems to have entered the symbolicvocabulary of the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries through arediscovered and influential work of the third century NeoplatonistPorphyry, De Antro Nympharum ( On the Cave of the Nymphs ).(Ver Fig. 5..) La colmena de abejas y parece haber entrado en elvocabulario simbólico de los siglos XVI y XVII y redescubierto a travésde un influyente trabajo del tercer siglo Neoplatonist Porfirio, De Antro Nympharum (En la Cueva de las ninfas). In this short essay, Porphyry examined several verses from the thirteenth book of Homer's Odysseyand showed how they were to be interpreted as an allegory of theimmortal soul's passage through mortality and on to liberation. Thebees and hive are among the objects encountered in this "cave ofgeneration." En este breve ensayo, Porfirio examinado varios versículos de la decimotercera libro La Odiseade Homero y mostró cómo se debe interpretarse como una alegoría de lainmortalidad del alma a través de la mortalidad y el paso a laliberación. Las abejas y la colmena se encuentran entre los objetosencontrados en esta "cueva de generación". AsKathleen Raine notes in her introduction to Thomas Taylor's translationof the work, "Porphyry's interests in symbols and myths is central--inwhat Henry Corbin has called the mundus imaginalis, the imaginal worldwhere sensible images are informed with meaning, and where higherworlds may be discerned under symbolic forms. . . . With the revival ofNeoplatonic learning in Renaissance Florence, De Antro Nympharumspoke immediately to the imaginative genius of those gifted painterswhose works communicated the profoundest philosophic realizations inthe lightest vestures" ("Introduction" in, Porphyry, On the Cave of the Nymphs[Grand Rapids: Phanes Press, 1991], 10, 13.) It is this same intent toconvey an understanding of "higher worlds" through symbolic forms thatsubsequently animated the seventeenth-century genre of "hieroglyphic"alchemical emblems; and it is only natural that they would pay homageby echoing imagery from De Antro Nypharum. Kathleen Raine comoseñala en su introducción a la traducción de Thomas Taylor, de la obra,"los intereses de Pórfido en los símbolos y los mitos es fundamental -en lo que Henry Corbin ha llamado el mundus imaginalis, el mundoimaginal sensato imágenes donde se les informa con sentido, y en losque mayor mundo puede ser percibido en virtud de las formassimbólicas.... Con la reactivación de Neoplatonic aprendizaje delRenacimiento en Florencia, De Antro Nympharum hablóinmediatamente a la imaginación de los genios dotados pintores cuyasobras comunicado el profundo filosófica realizaciones en el más ligerovestures "(" Introducción " en, Porfirio, Sobre la Cueva de las Ninfas[Grand Rapids: Phanes Press, 1991], 10, 13.) Es la misma intención detransmitir una comprensión de los "mundos superiores" a través deformas simbólicas que, posteriormente, la animación del siglo XVIIgénero de "jeroglíficos" alquímico emblemas, y es natural que rendirhomenaje haciéndome eco de las imágenes de De Antro Nypharum. Porphyryassociated Homer's Cave of the Nymphs with the cave-temples of anancient mystery religion and gave a long discussion to the symbolic,allegorical meanings of the bees and honey combs found there.Pórfido asociados Homero La Cueva de las Ninfas de la cueva, contemplos de una antigua religión misterio y dio un largo debate a losimbólico, alegórico significado de los panales de abejas y la miel queallí se encuentran. Theweb and beehive were subsequently linked together in emblemsidentifying the royal patron of the Rosicrucian enlightenment, FredrickV, Elector Palatine and King of Bohemia (this linkage helps identifytheir joint origin in Porphyry, a fact I have not seen elsewhere noted).La web de la colmena y posteriormente fueron unidas en laidentificación de los emblemas reales patrón de la iluminaciónrosacruces, Fredrick V, Elector Palatino y el Rey de Bohemia (estevínculo ayuda a identificar el origen en su conjunto Pórfido, un hecho que he visto en otros lugares no se indique lo contrario). Fredrick'sreign became the focal point of reformative aspirations, and under hispatronage in Oppenheim several of the most influential emblematic"Rosicrucian" books were published. Fredrick del reinado seconvirtió en el centro de las aspiraciones de reforma, y bajo supatrocinio Oppenheim en varios de los más influyentes emblemático"rosacruces" los libros fueron publicados. These included works published by the de Bry firm and several authored by Michael Maier ( Examen fucorum,noted above, is an example--on the title page Maier identifies himself"Count Palatine, Free Knight of the Empire, Doctor of Medicine"). TheRose Cross, spider's web, and beehive are again linked on the titlepage of Robert Fludd's and Joachim Frizius's collaboration, Summum bonum, The True Magic, Cabla, and Alchemy of the True Fraternity of the Rose Cross (Frankfurt, 1629) (Yates, The Rosicrucian Enlightenment, 72, 102). Estas incluyen las obras publicadas por la empresa de Bry y autor de varios de Michael Maier (Examen fucorum,se ha señalado anteriormente, es un ejemplo - en la página del títuloMaier identifica a sí mismo "conde palatino, libre Caballero delImperio, Doctor en Medicina"). la Rosa Cruz, tela de araña, la colmenay son de nuevo vinculadas en la página del título de Robert Fludd yJoachim Frizius de la colaboración, summum bonum, la verdadera magia, Cabla, y Alquimia de la verdadera fraternidad de la Rosa Cruz (Frankfurt, 1629) (Yates , rosacruces La Ilustración, 72, 102). Thesymbol of the beehive subsequently entered into Freemasonry as one ofthe ten emblems (including the "All-seeing Eye") given to a MasterMason at the time of his ceremonial initiation; in Masonry it wasassociated with the motto "industry" (Jabez Richardson, Richardson's Monitor of Free-Masonry [facsimile reprint, Chicago: Charles T. Powner, Co., nd], 40).El símbolo de la colmena, posteriormente entró en la Francmasoneríacomo uno de los diez emblemas (incluido el "All-Seeing Eye") laposibilidad de un Maestro Masón en el momento de su ceremonia deiniciación, en la Masonería se asoció con el lema "industria" ( JabezRichardson, Richardson libre Monitor de Albañilería [reimpresión facsímil, Chicago: Charles T. Powner, Co., nd], 40). Nearlyevery priesthood leader of Joseph Smith's church present in Nauvoo was"given" these two symbolic emblems when entered as Master Masons (seediscussion below). Casi todos los líderes del sacerdocio de laiglesia de José Smith en Nauvoo fue "dado" de estos dos emblemassimbólicos cuando entró como Maestro Masones (véase más adelante). Ina bizarre historical twist, after the failure of the reign of FredrickV, the next political kingdom to which this symbol would be widelylinked was Brigham Young's Kingdom of Deseret. En un extrañogiro histórico, tras el fracaso del reinado de Fredrick V, el próximoreino políticos a los que este símbolo sería ampliamente vinculadoBrigham Young fue el Reino de Deseret. The beehive and the motto "Industry" remain today the emblem and motto of its successor, the State of Utah. La colmena y el lema de "industria" sigue siendo hoy el emblema y lema de su sucesor, el Estado de Utah.
  62. Upon a dwindling remnant of Utah's nineteenth century Mormon facades these symbols still remain. A una disminución del remanente de Utah Mormón fachadas del siglo XIX siguen siendo estos símbolos. See Allen D. Roberts, "Where are the All-Seeing Eyes?" Sunstone 4 (May-June 1979): 22-37. Véase Allen D. Roberts, "¿Dónde están los ojos ver todo?" Sunstone 4 (mayo-junio de 1979): 22-37.
  63. Jung gives extended discussion and documentation to each of these specific themes in Mysterium Coniunctionis. Jung le da un amplio debate y documentación para cada uno de estos temas concretos en Mysterium Coniunctionis.
  64. Yates touches some of these issues in her chapter "Rosicrucianism and Freemasonry" in The Rosicrucian Enlightenment, 206-19. Yates toca algunas de estas cuestiones en su capítulo "Rosicrucianism y la Francmasonería" en La Ilustración rosacruces, 206-19. For further discussion of the Hermetic tradition's influence on Masonry, see Yates, Giordano Bruno, 214, 414-16, 423, and The Art of Memory (Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1966), 303-305. Para mayor discusión de la tradición Hermética sobre la influencia de la Masonería, véase Yates, Giordano Bruno, 214, 414-16, 423, y El arte de la memoria (Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1966), 303-305.
  65. Yates, The Rosicrucian Enlightenment , 210. Yates, rosacruces La Ilustración, 210.
  66. Douglas Knoop and G. Jones, TheGenesis of Freemasonry: An Account of the Rise and Development ofFreemasonry in Its Operative, Accepted, and Early Speculative Phases (Manchester, Eng.: Manchester University Press, 1949), 274. Douglas Knoop y Jones, G., LaGénesis de la Francmasonería: una cuenta de la subida y el Desarrollode la Francmasonería en su operativa, aceptadas, y las fases tempranasespeculativo (Manchester, Inglaterra.: Manchester University Press, 1949), 274.
  67. The allegorical nature of Masonic rituals is thoroughly evidenced in records of the eighteenth century. El carácter alegórico de los rituales masónicos es completamente evidenciado en los registros del siglo XVIII. Whenthese the rituals took form is a matter of supposition; Gould posits anorigin of the Masonic rituals in the seventeenth century, butsubsequent historians have suggested that the rituals as currentlyrecognizable originated during the 1720s (see Michael W. Homer,"`Similarity of Priesthood in Masonry': The Relationship betweenFreemasonry and Mormonism," in this issue of Dialogue: A Journal of Mormon Thought ; Robert Freke Gould, The History of Freemasonry, 4 vols. [New York: John C. Yorston & Co., 1885-89]; Knoop and Jones, 274-75, 321-22).Cuando estos rituales tomó la forma es un asunto de suposición; Gouldpostula un origen de los rituales masónicos en el siglo XVII, peroposteriormente los historiadores han sugerido que los ritualesreconocibles como actualmente se originó durante el 1720s (véaseMichael W. Homero "," Similitud del sacerdocio en la Masonería ":relación entre la Masonería y el Mormonismo," en este número de Diálogo: Un Diario de Mormón pensamiento; Freke Robert Gould, La Historia de la Francmasonería, 4 vols. [New York: John C. Yorston & Co., 1885-89]; Knoop y Jones, 274-75, 321-22).
  68. Materialpublished in German by JG Buhle in 1804 served as the foundation for DeQuincey's work "Historico-Critical Inquiry into the Origins of theRosicrucians and the Freemasons," reprinted in Collected Works, ed.El material publicado en alemán de JG Buhle en 1804 sirvió de base parael trabajo de De Quincey "Histórico-Crítico Investigación de losOrígenes de la Rosa y los masones", reproducido en Obras, ed. David Masson (Edinburgh, 1890), 13:384-448. David Masson (Edimburgo, 1890), 13:384-448.
  69. Waite, 402-407. Waite, 402-407.
  70. Yates, The Rosicrucian Enlightenment, 218. Yates, rosacruces La Ilustración, 218.
  71. This association, though recognized, was not cast in a positive light by the wider culture. Esta asociación, aunque reconoció, no fue de manera positiva por la mayor cultura. Quinnprovides several examples of America anti-Masonic material from thisperiod associating Masons, Kabbalah, and Rosicrucians in a negativecontext (164-65). Quinn proporciona varios ejemplos de Américacontra la Masónicas material de este período asociar Masones, laCabalá, y Rosa en un contexto negativo (164-65). Much of this material probably took form from the evidence provided by Buhle and De Quincey. Gran parte de este material probablemente se forma a partir de las pruebas aportadas por Buhle y De Quincey. Links to Rosicrucians and Kabbalah were also variously affirmed in esoteric Masonic myth. Enlaces a Rosa y la Cabalá también se afirma en diversos masónica esotérica mito.
  72. Inhis nineteenth-century encyclopedia of Freemasonry, Macoy gives apartial summary of these, listing forty-eight rites or systems ofsymbolical ceremonies designed to convey "Masonic ideals"; the vastmajority of these originating between about 1750 and 1810 (RobertMacoy, General History, Cyclopedia and Dictionary of Freemasonry [New York: Masonic Publishing Co., 1872], reprinted as A Dictionary of Freemasonry [New York: Bell Publishing, 1989], 326-29).En su enciclopedia del siglo XIX de la Francmasonería, Macoy da unresumen de estos parciales, lista cuarenta y ocho ritos o ceremoniassimbólicas de sistemas diseñados para transmitir "ideales masónicos",la gran mayoría de estos procedentes de entre 1750 y 1810 (RobertMacoy, General History, Cyclopedia and Dictionary of Freemasonry [New York: Masonic Publishing Co., 1872], reprinted as A Dictionary of Freemasonry [New York: Bell Publishing, 1989], 326-29).As Ellwood notes in his review of the movement, "There was no unity ofrite or structure among groups using that title [of Mason]. The namewas immensely popular, and so was adopted by any sort of society with asecret handshake and pretension to ancient lore. These ranged from theSwedenborgian rite lodges . . . to the inimitable Cagliostro" (RobertS. Ellwood, Jr., Religious and Spiritual Groups in Modern America [Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice-Hall, 1973], 64).
  73. Massimo Introvigne, "Arcana Arcanorum: Cagliostro's Legacy in Contemporary Magical Movements," Syzrygy: Journal of Alternative Religion and Culture 1 (Spring/Summer 1992): 117-35.
  74. A review of these various movements is in Ellwood, 60-69.
  75. Linda Sillitoe and Allen Roberts, Salamander: The Story of the Mormon Forgery Murders (Salt Lake City: Signature Books, 1988), 183-360.
  76. Quinn, ix-x.
  77. Ibid., xi-xiii.
  78. Yates, Occult Philosophy , 46.
  79. See n60. "The appearance of ancient bodies of literature, Neoplatonicand hermetic, in Latin and Italian translations, together with therendering of a significant corpus of Kabbalistic literature into Latinand Italian, precipitated the emergence of a new attitude toward magic,first in the circles of the Florentine literati, and afterward, undertheir influence, in a long series of European Renaissance andpost-Renaissance figures all over Europe. . . . For them, magic was thelore taught by ancient masters like Hermes Trismegistus. . .a lorebased on a vast knowledge of the universal order, a knowledge thatculminated in actualizing the potentiality inherent in human nature.Instead of being the practice of obscure and peripheral persons, theRenaissance magician came to designate the apex of human achievement,to be cultivated by the elite in order to exercise the human qualitiesthat testify to the fullness of human perfection. It was not so muchthe subjugation of the material world to which the learned magicians ofthe Renaissance aspired, as to the fulfillment of their spirit." MosheIdel, "Jewish Magic from the Renaissance Period", 83.
  80. Keith Thomas, Religion and the Decline of Magic (New York: Charles Scribner's Sons, 1971), 228. Thomas's study is itself dominated by an interest in the folk magical.
  81. At the same time, it must be recognized that there was an importantmystical and alchemical element in some sectors of seventeenth-centuryPurtianism. See Yates, The Occult Philosophy, 167.
  82. Meric Casaubon (1599-1671) was both the son of Issac Casaubon, the distinguished philological scholar who had dated the Hermetica, and a staunch Anglican critic of the Hermetic and magical movement. Quoted in French, John Dee, 13.
  83. Godwin, Robert Fludd, 11.
  84. In evidence, as this paper went to press I received an advance copy ofa comprehensive and very important new study of Mormonism'srelationship to Hermeticism: John L. Brooke, The Refiner's Fire: The Making of Mormon Cosmology, 1644-1844(New York: Cambridge University Press, 1994). Prof. Brooke reviews muchof the material I have presented above, and draws very similarconclusions: "The Mormon cosmology constructed by Joseph Smith was asoptimistic as Renaissance hermeticism and shared with it a startlingnumber of common themes. . . . [Smith] reproduced the three heavens ofthe Cabala and hermeticism in the three Mormon heavens, the telestial,terrestial, and celestial kingdoms. Both hermeticism and Mormonismcelebrate the mutuality of spiritual and material worlds, precreatedintelligences, free will, a divine Adam, a fortunate, sinless Fall, andthe symbolism and religious efficacy of marriage and sexuality. And, asin hermeticism, Adam, 'the father of all, prince of all, that ancientof days,' would occupy a central position in Mormon cosmology. . ..Three centuries after the height of the Renaissance, Mormonism echoedthe hermetics--and explicitly rejected Calvinism. . . . Joseph Smithgave Mormon hierarchy the same authority that the hermetic alchemistassumed: human means to immortality, indeed divinity." (Ibid., 13.) Seemy review of Brooke's work in this issue of Dialogue.
  85. These are discussed and illustrated in Quinn, 53-111.
  86. The magical square on the back of Joseph's talisman appears, pregnantwith symbolic meaning, in one of Albrecht Dürer's most famousengravings, "Melancolia" (Horst Michael, Albrect Dürer: The Complete Engravings [Artline Editions, 1987], plate 72); for a discussion, see Yates, The Occult Philosophy, 135 ff. See also the chapter "Cornelius Agrippa's Survey of Renaissance Magic" in Yates, Giordano Bruno , 130-56.
  87. Quinn, 81-97.
  88. Ibid., 96.
  89. Ibid., 83.
  90. Paracelsus (ca. 1493-1541) was a seminal figure in the alchemical andmedical tradition. Paracelsian alchemy was central to Rosicrucianism.His works were even among the items supposed to be in the mythic tombof Christian Rosencreutz. During the early and mid-nineteenth centuryin England and Europe Mesmerism was closely linked with spiritualalchemy by occultists interested in visionary states, and as Merkurnotes, "In the Gold und Rosenkreuz, a development of the alchemicaltradition of Paracelsus and Boehme in late eighteenth-century German,the insignias of the ninth and highest degree, Majus, consisted of a`gleaming and fiery' Urim and Thummim with a Schemhamphorash. It is atleast probable that the German alchemists named their engraved broochesin allusion to their use in crystal-gazing and scrying" (55).
  91. Jolanda Jacobi, ed., Paracelsus: Selected Writings(Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press, 1979), 134, emphasis added.Paracelsus also prophesied of the coming of the prophet "Elias" as partof a universal restoration, another idea possibly affecting the work ofJoseph Smith (Yates, The Rosicrucian Enlightenment, 93).
  92. Dan Vogel offers an exception by briefly noting the influence ofspiritual alchemy on the important seventeenth-century Seeker JohnEverard. See Dan Vogel, Religious Seekers and the Advent of Mormonism (Salt Lake City: Signature Books, 1988), 9n50.
  93. Quinn, 80.
  94. E. Gordon Alderfer, The Ephrata Commune: An Early American Counter Culture (Pittsburgh: Univ. of Pittsburgh Press, 1985), 27-30.
  95. Ibid., 6.
  96. Ibid., 62, 122-23.
  97. The commune apparently possessed Kabbalistic texts, including the Zohar(ibid., 87), and may have even instituted an order associated with oneof the Rosicrucian variants of Freemasonry (ibid., 70; Julius FriedrichSachse, The German Sectarians of Pennsylvania, 1708-1800; A Critical and Legendary History of the Ephrata Cloister and the Dunkers[Philadelphia: Printed for the author, 1899-1900], 1:354f.). ThatSachse, a late-nineteenth-century Masonic historian, would perceive avariant Masonry in practice at Ephrata again indicates both the wideacceptance of Rosicrucian ties in Masonry in the nineteenth century andthe wide latitude of esoteric things allowed classification as"Masonic."
  98. Noted are: the presence of a Rosicruciancross on the Smith family "Holiness to the Lord" magical parchment; thesimilarity of rituals used in the Ephrata commune for conveyingMelchizedik priesthood and performing proxy baptisms for the dead toforms later incorporated by Joseph Smith; the use of pseudonyms exactlylike those adopted in early Mormonism ("Enoch" as a code name forJoseph Smith) within the Ephrata Rosicrucian society; and thesimilarity between one of Joseph Smith's 1829 revelations (recorded asD&C 7) and a Rosicrucian legend (Quinn, 133, 180-81, 169; Alderfer,88).
  99. As unusual as this combination would be, JosephSmith did apparently come close to having all three in Nauvoo duringthe last two years of his life, as will be discussed below.
  100. The "Tree of Sefiroth" is a diagram depicting the ten Sefirothor divine emenations within the archetypal structure of the Godhead(see Fig. 1). For a example, see the illustration in Robert Fludd,"Aboris Sephirothicae," in De Praeternaturali utrusque mundi Historia, Vol. 2, 157, part of the larger work, Utruiusque cosmi maioris . . . . (Frankfurti, 1621). This image or an image like it seems to have been copied by Orson Hyde in 1847, as discussed later.
  101. Joe Sampson, Written by the Finger of God (Sandy, UT: Wellspring Publishing, 1993).
  102. Ibid., 87-104.
  103. This situation also has precedence in the Hermetic-Kabbalistictradition. The writings of the German mystic Jacob Boehme have such astrong Kabbalistic flavor that his students have long thought he musthave had some direct contact with Kabbalah, even though no firmhistorical evidence of this has yet been developed. (Interesting in thepresent context is that the most likely source identified by historiansfrom whom Boehme might have learned about Kabbalah is a "Dr. B. Walter"who had traveled widely in the East and collected esoteric knowledge ofmagic, alchemy, and Kabbalah.) Andrew Weeks, Boehme: An Intellectual Biography of the Seventeenth-Century Philosopher and Mystic (Albany: SUNY Press, 1991), 43, 147.
  104. In 1842 the Apostle Heber C. Kimball quote Joseph Smith saying: "thareis a similarity of preast Hood in masonary. Br Joseph ses masonry wastaken from preasthood but has become degenerated. but menny things areperfect" (Quinn, 185). In 1899 Apostle Rudger Clawson related theopinion that "Joseph . . . was aware that there were some things aboutmasonry which had come down from the beginning and he desired to knowwhat they were, hence the Lodge. . . . Joseph inquired of the Lordconcerning the matter and he revealed to the prophet true Masonry as wehave in our temples" (in Stan Larson, ed., A Ministry of Meetings: The Apostolic Diaries of Rudger Clawson [Salt Lake City: Signature Books in association with Smith Research Associates, 1993], XXX).
  105. Quinn, 164-65. This same assertion had been widely publicized by De Quincey in his London Magazine piece, "Historico-Critical Inquiry into the Origins of the Rosicrucians and the Freemasons."
  106. Arthur Edward Waite, A New Encyclopaedia of Freemasonry (London: William Rider and Son, 1923), 1:47.
  107. Albert Pike, Morals and Dogma of the Ancient and Accepted Scottish Rite of Freemasonry (Charleston, SC, 1871), cited in Hoeller.
  108. Robert Kirk, The Secret Commonwealth of Elves, Fauns and Faires (Stirling: Eneas Mackay, 1933), 107-108. Kirk's original manuscript is dated 1691.
  109. Homer makes particular note of the 28th degree of the Scottish rite,which is based on the 23rd degree of the Rite de Perfection. Thisdegree is known as the "Knight of the Sun," "Prince of the Sun," or"Key to Masonry." As Homer suggests, the ritual of this degree hasseveral motifs familiar to the Mormon temple ceremony: Father Adam isthe presiding officer, accompanied by seven angels, including Michael,Gabriel, Raphael, and Auriel; and the rite is to be administered in aroom painted like a vast garden, with open fields, forests, andmountains. The rite has an obviously alchemical and Hermetic flavor,leading Macoy to suggest the "28th degree of Freemasonry must have beencomposed by Freemasons who were also members of the Order of the RosyCross." The seal of the degree (illustrated in Macoy) is emblazonedwith the Hermetic motto of the Tabula smaragdina ("That whichis above is also below"); over and under the image of God reflected inhimself as dual white and black triangles interwoven in the Seal ofSolomon are inscribed the terms common to Rosicrucianism and alchemy,"Macroprospus" or macrocosm and "Microprosupus" or microcosm. In theceremony, a five-pointed star represents man, the microcosmos, and thestaff of Hermes, the caduceus, sits at the right hand of Adam. Thecollar donned in the rite bears the single "All-seeing Eye" of God, andthe medal worn is a golden Sun similar to the Nauvoo temple sunstones.Macoy, 209-11, 331.
  110. Scholem, Kabbalah, 284, 304.
  111. Macoy, 326-29.
  112. Irenaeus, Adversus haereses, 1.18.1.
  113. Hill, 279.
  114. A third issue deserves brief notation: the "Joseph Smith to JosephHull" letter, mentioned by Durham, said to have been written by JosephSmith about Freemasonry. A copy of the original is in my possession,and a transcript (with some errors) was published with the Durham paperas Appendix A ( No Help for the Widow's Son: Two Papers on the Influence of the Masonic Movement on Joseph Smith and His Mormon Church[Nauvoo: Martin Publishing Co, 1980], 29.) This torn and undated letterwas discovered around 1966-67 in a group of miscellaneous manuscriptmaterials by George Rinsland, an Eastern manuscripts dealer. In April1967 Rinsland sent it, unsolicited and free of cost, to Steve Barnett,then an active collector and dealer of such materials in Salt Lake(Barnett to Lance Owens, 12 Feb. 1991). I have made an extensive studyof the Smith-Hull letter's content and handwriting. It is my opinionthat the letter is not in the hand of Joseph Smith, though thesimilarities are strong enough to suggest a period forgery of his hand.The signature essentially matches Smith's post-1840 signature (when heceased to append "Jr.").

    The letter itself is interesting,regardless of the author, and represents the type of esoteric Masonicthought to which Joseph Smith might have been exposed. In an esotericdisquisition, the Masonic temple is metaphorically interposed upon theworld and the offices of the temple are placed geographically over theface of the globe, as they are arranged within the Masonic templeceremony. Symbolically, Masonic ritual is seen as an image of greaterforces working historically in human society--a telling example ofesoteric Masonic thought. This is just the type of expanded, esotericinterpretation one might expect Joseph Smith to impose upon Masonicritual.

    The dualistic view of humankind's guiding genius isalso interesting: "Mankind is guided through this life by two Spiritsviz light & Darkness two opposites & Thay appear inten-thousands Shapes & thay have as many names as thay haveShapes." This theme of a compexio oppositorum , played againstthe image of the single all-seeing "Eye/I" of God, is echoed again inthe cryptic poem on the last page of the letter: "that our 2 eyesSprang from his 1; that our 2 Spirits did the Same; Light; Darkness."This dualism of two natures within the single "I" of God, of two eyesand two spirits, of Light and Dark, being born from his singleness, isthe crux of an ancient heresy echoed in Joseph's vision of God: a holywedding of uncreated matter's darkness with the supernal light ofconsciousness, intelligence or knowing, a creative union ceaselesslybearing new Gods in the dark/light transformation of man/woman.
  115. Klaus Hansen, Quest for Empire: The Political Kingdom of God and the Council of Fifty in Mormon History (Lansing: Michigan State University Press, 1970), 55-71.
  116. Minutes of the Council of Fifty, 1880, cited in Hansen, 60-61. Giventhe forty years elapsed between the events and this recording of thehistory in 1880, it is possible that the date of the revelation was1841, as Bennett claimed, and not 1842.
  117. The Return 2 (June 1890):287, cited in Robert Flanders, Nauvoo: Kingdom on the Mississippi (Urbana: University of Illinois Press, 1965), 249.
  118. Prior to joining Strang, Bennett asked, "Can I depend upon my oldplace? . . . While you will be the Moses of the last days, I hope to beyour Joshua, my old position, while you stand as the crowned ImperialPrimate, I will be . . . your General-in-Chief." Noord notes, "With thearrival of John Cook Bennett in Voree came stirrings of a royal order,of a kingdom, and of power for James Jesse Strang. [Wrote Bennett:] `Ihave many things to tell you when I come that I cannot commit topaper--some very important indeed.' " One thing Bennett told Strangafter his arrival to Voree, Wis. in the Summer of 1846, was the detailsabout an "Order of the Illuminati". Shortly after his arrival, the"Order of Illuminati" was formed, with Strang as imperial primate andBennett as his general-in-chief: Bennett was indeed again "Joshua"(Roger Van Noord, King of Beaver Island: The Life and Assassination of James Jesse Strang[Urbana: University of Illinois Press, 1988], 45, 48-49.) AmongStrang's followers were others who remembered the organization inNauvoo, including another prominent disciple of Joseph Smith, GeorgeMiller, first Worshipful Master of the Nauvoo Masonic Lodge, member ofthe "Holy Order" that first received the endowment in 1842, and anoriginal member of Joseph's Council of Fifty in 1844.
  119. The most specifically example is Adam Weishaupt's prominent Masonicorganization of the same name founded in 1776 in Bavaria. The conceptof the Illuminati appeared in varied forms and was widely attacked inanti-Masonic material circulating in the period. Ellwood, 64.
  120. In Cagliostro's Egyptian rite the female Masonic consorts were known as"doves." Quinn illustrates a "masonic medal" Smith gave to his pluralwife Eliza R. Snow; though otherwise unidentified as to origins, it isinteresting that the medal is of a dove. Timothy O'Neill, "The GrandCopt", Gnosis: A Journal of the Western Inner Traditions 24 (Summer, 1992), 28; Introvigne, 117-35.
  121. Brief notations on Neibaur and Kabbalah are found, for example, inNewell and Avery's biography of Emma Smith (325n36). Susa Young Gatespresented the first published biographical note on Neibaur in the Relief Society Magazine9 (1922): 132-40. Gates apparently obtained much of her material fromNeibaur family sources. A typescript biography of Neibaur is found inLDS archives. This is the most complete biography I have found andcontains several stories about Neibaur attributed to familyrecollections. These sources of information on Neibaur are supplementedby a biographical note in the papers of Louis C. Zucker, a Jewishscholar and Professor of English at the University of Utah whoresearched Joseph Smith's contacts with Hebrew (see Louis C. ZuckerPapers, Special Collections, Marriott Library). A brief recension ofthis material appears in Theda Lucille Bassett, Grandpa Neibaur was a Pioneer , (Salt Lake City: Published by the author, 1988).
  122. The biographical material contained here is obtained principally from the undated typescript in LDS archives.
  123. Frankist Jews in this area had nominally converted to Christianity. ASabbatean or Frankist source would have interesting implication forJoseph Smith's understanding of Kabbalah as interpreted and presentedby Neibaur--particularly with regard to the concept of the mysticalintent of sexual intercourse and anomian sexual relationships. Fordiscussions of these issues, see G. Scholem, Sabbatai Sevi: The Mystical Messiah (Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press, 1973), and his notes on Sevi and Frank in Kabbalah,244-309. Niebaur's parents were both Jew's born around 1780 in westernPoland (then part of Prussia) during a period of intense Frankistfoment. Though Alexander was born in Alsace-Lorraine, the familyapparently had returned to and remained in Unruhstadt (now Kargowa,Zielona Gorz, Poland) after 1814. Kabbalistic interests fostered by theHasidic movement also were present in this area, and the young Neibaurmight have had some contact with them in his studies. Neibaur FamilyGroup Sheet, LDS Geneological Library.
  124. Newell and Avery, 325n36.
  125. "The Jews," Times and Seasons4 (1 June 1843): 220-22; 4 (15 June 1843): 233-34. The article isintroduced by editor John Taylor: "The following very singular notionsof the Jews, with regard to their resurrection, will no doubt, be readwith interest by many of the curious, especially the lovers of Jewishliterature." On the composition of this piece, we have only Neibaur'sbrief explanatory endnote: "Having commenced this sometime since--andhaving had the privilege, a few Sundays back, to hear our worthyprophet on the same subject, I was determined to go on with it, andhand it over to you. If you think it will be of any interest to yourreaders, I shall take another time to continue the subject, and tellyou the means, as held by my brethren the Jews, whereby the Lord willbring to pass this glorious work." The proposed continuation neverappeared.
  126. See G. Scholem, "Gilgul: The Transmigration of Souls", in On the Mystical Shape of the Godhead(New York: Schocken Books, 1991), 197-250. The concept oftransmigration of souls received further discussion in early Mormonism.William Clayton records in his diary arguments among Mormon companionsover the idea of "baby resurrection," or rebirth as a mortal infant.See George D. Smith, ed., An Intimate Chronicle: The Journals of William Clayton (Salt Lake City: Signature Books in association with Smith Research Associates, 1991), 429-30.
  127. Given the importance of this material to the discussion that follows, Ihave provided an Appendix to this essay listing each citation made byNeibaur in his Times and Seasons article.
  128. Ifhe did not have the works at hand, then it would appear he eitherpossessed an exceptional memory or had previously compiled andmaintained a fairly comprehensive set of notes listing his citations. Athird option, that he relied on a single secondary source whichprovided all of the citations remains possible. His own note on theessay's composition suggests that he took some time and effort with itscompilation, perhaps supporting the view that he labored to collatesources. A single work containing this wide collection of citations hasnot yet been brought to my attention. If Neibaur was quoting from acompilation instead of using the original texts, it is apparent by thematerial contained therein that his source or sources were Kabbalisticin nature, and that he would have recognized them as Kabbalistic. Ihave found no mention of Neibaur's books after the Nauvoo period, andat his death documents relating to his estate of do not list personaleffects such as books. See documents relating to the estate ofAlexander Neibaur, LDS archives.
  129. Alexander NeibaurJournal, 26 Apr. 1841, and entries between 24 May 1844 and 17 June1844. Neibaur's journal begins with his departure from England, and hassporadic entries made throughout 1841, 1842, and 1844. There are noentries for 1843. The more frequent entries made during May and June1844 indicate Neibaur was a regular companion to Smith. On 24 May 1844Neibaur also records Smith's recounting to him of the "First Vision".Neibaur Journal, 1841-62, LDS archives. Smith's journal records severaladditional study sessions between the men during the spring of 1844: on18 March, "At home reciting German with Neibaur"; 23 May, "readingHebrew with Neibaur"; and 3 June, "read German with Neibaur." ScottFaulring, ed., An American Prophet's Record: The Diaries and Journals of Joseph Smith(Salt Lake City: Signature Books in association with Smith ResearchAssociates, 1989), 460, 481, 487. On 23 March 1844 William Claytonnotes that Neibaur accompanied Smith on a sensitive trip to confrontRobert Foster about allegations of Smith's sexual improprieties. Smith,An Intimate Chronicle, 127.
  130. Anewly amalgamated and authoritatively edited text of the King FollettDiscourse appears in Stan Larson, "The King Follett Discourse," Brigham Young University Studies18 (Winter 1978): 179-225. Three excellent interpretive articles appearin conjunction with the discourse's text in the same issue.
  131. Fawn M. Brodie, No Man Knows My History (New York: Alfred A. Knopf, 1945), 366.
  132. Van Hale, "The Doctrinal Impact of the King Follett Discourse," Brigham Young University Studies 18 (Winter 1978): 213.
  133. Larson, "King Follett Discourse", 202.
  134. The phrase "Rosh--the Head Father of the Gods" is used by Smith toclarify his translation shortly after the above text. Ibid, 203.
  135. The Hebrew grammar for the Use of Beginnerswas published in 1833 and 1834, and a copy is found in SpecialCollection, Marriott Library. See the discussion in Louis C. Zucker,"Joseph Smith as a Student of Hebrew," Dialogue: A Journal of Mormon Thought 3 (Summer 1968): 41-55.
  136. Zucker, 52-53.
  137. Steven Epperson's recent study offers an example of the failure by evena well-trained Mormon historian with interests in Judaism to recognizedthe Kabbalistic sources in Neibaur's essay. Epperson makes briefmention of Neibaur and his article, but essentially quotes Zucker.Steven Epperson, Mormons and Jews: Early Mormon Theologies of Israel (Salt Lake City: Signature Books, 1992), 101.
  138. Scholem, Major Trends, 221. Yehuda Liebes also comments on this same Kabbalistic interpretation of Genesis 1:1 in Studies in the Zohar, 153-54.
  139. In Kabbalistic interpretation, the "Hidden Nothing" in Kabbalah is not"nothing" in the common sense, but the vast unorganized mysterypreceding creation. There is no truly ex nihilo creation in Kabbalah. Thus Joseph's translation "organized" accords with Kabbalah. Scholem, On the Kabbalah, 102-103. See also Idel, Kabbalah, 220.
  140. Interpretively, this verse can be read in Kabbalah to mean that the brightness or Zoharfrom which creation emanated is Intelligence, the first Being of God.The sympathy of this view with Mormon theology is apparent now, as itperhaps was then.
  141. Zohar I:15a. All translations usedhere and below comes from the Sperling translation of the Zohar: HarrySperling and Maurice Simon, trans., The Zohar, in five volumes (London: Soncino Press, 1931).
  142. In the amalgamated text, the phrase is taken from William Clayton'stranscription given here (Andrew F. Ehat and Lyndon W. Cook, eds., The Words of the Joseph Smith[Orem, UT: Grandin Press, 1991], 358). In Larson's amalgamation, thebracketed words in the reconstructed text "ROSHITH [BARA ELOHIM]signifies [the Head] to bring forth the Elohim" are interposed byLarson based on the assumption that in the original other Hebrew wordsmay have been spoken but not recorded (Larson, 198 n15). Clayton'stranscription stands well without these interpolations. Joseph's use ofthe words "bring forth" is also significant; this is a closertranslation of the Kabbalistic concept of emanation implied in theverse and perhaps a better choice than the word "created" used by theSperling translation of the Zohar quoted above (Scholem, Kabbalah, 98-99).
  143. The full text of this passage in the Zoharis as follows: "A further esoteric interpretation of the word bereshithis as follows. The name of the starting-point of all is Ehyeh (I shallbe). The holy name when inscribed at its side is Elohim, but wheninscribed by circumscription is Asher, the hidden and recondite temple,the source of that which is mystically called Reshith. The word Asher(ie the letters, Aleph, Shin, Resh from the word bereshith) isanagrammatically Rosh (head), the beginning which issues from Reshith"( Zohar I, 15a). It should also be noted that each Hebrew letter has an independent meaning; the letter resh has the meaning "head."
  144. Zohar I, 23b.
  145. Ehat and Cook, Words of Joseph, 379.
  146. In the King Follett Discourse on two occasions Smith noted he had beenrecently "reading from the German," and he does actually read aloud inGerman near the end of the discourse. Neibaur was Joseph's tutor inGerman and Hebrew, and was the only person in Joseph's immediatecompany who knew German, Hebrew, Latin, and Greek, the languages Smithmentions or uses during his oration. And Neibaur was the figure inNauvoo who knew Kabbalah and perhaps even possessed a copy of the Zohar, containing the exegesis Smith used in his greatest doctrinaldiscourse. Hale notes that the sections of the King Follett Discoursecontaining foreign languages probably receive some advanced preparation(Hale, 210). It seems probable that Neibaur helped.
  147. See David John Buerger, "The Adam-God Doctrine," Dialogue: A Journal of Mormon Thought 15 (Spring 1982): 14-58.
  148. The Zoharsays, "The King [God] seeks only that which corresponds to him.Therefore the Holy One, may He be blessed, dwells in him who (like Him)is one. When man, in perfect holiness, realizes the One, He is in thatone. And when is it that man is called one? When man and woman arejoined together sexually. . . . Come and see! At the point at which ahuman being as male and female is united, taking care that his thoughtsare holy, he is perfect and stainless and is called one. Man shouldtherefore act so that woman is glad at that moment and has one singlewish together with him, and both of them united should bring their mindto that thing. For thus has it been taught, `He who has not taken awoman is as if he were only a half'" ( Zohar III, 81a).
  149. See Quinn, 138-40.
  150. Mozart was of course a Mason, and his royal patron, Joseph II ofAustria, (reign 1780-90) was both a Mason and a patron of Masonry(Ellwood, 64).
  151. Robert Fludd, "Aboris Sephirothicae," in De Praeternaturali utrusque mundi Historia, Vol. 2, 157, part of the larger work, Utruiusque cosmi maioris . . . .(Frankfurti, 1621). One also notes that Joseph Smith's presidentialcampaign poster (illustrated in Smith, lxxxvi) is similar to severalother illustrations in this volume by Fludd.
  152. Millennial Star 9 (January 15, 1847): 23-4.
  153. "Since Clayton attended virtually all meetings from general chruchconferences to Joseph Smith's private prayer circle, and was oftenappointed to take minutes, he was usually present when Smith deliveredprophecies and revealed new doctrines" (Smith, An Intimate Chronicle, xxiii).
  154. James B. Allen, Trials of Discipleship: The Story of William Clayton, a Mormon (Urbana: University of Illinois Press, 1987), 331-36.
  155. Richard L. Bushman, Joseph Smith and the Beginnings of Mormonism (Urbana: University of Illinois Press, 1984), 184.
  156. "The theosophical system of the Sefiroth was interpreted by AbrahamAbulafia as referring to human actions and psychological states . . .[I]n principle, the psychologizing of Kabbalah in the ecstatic trendserved to bridge the immense gap between it and philosophicalpsychology, which never emphasized the esoteric nature of this realm ofspeculation" (Idel, Kabbalah, 254-55).
  157. For example, see Scholem's discussion of this practice among the Sabbateans in his Sabbatai Sevi, 426-32.
  158. The Eranos Society met each summer in Ascona, Switzerland, beginning inthe 1930s. From 1933 through the 1950s Jung was a dominant presence inthese conferences--gatherings which united many of the great minds ofthe time. In 1949 Gershom Scholem first lectured at Eranos andcontinued to lecture almost annually until 1961. These eleven lecturesnow compose the body of two books by Scholem, The Mystical Shape of the Godhead and On the Kabbalah and its Symbolism.Jung and Scholem shared a warm intellectual friendship, though Scholemwas hesitant to develop his studies of Kabbalah using purelypsychological terminology. See William McGuire, Bollingen: An Adventure in Collecting the Past (Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press, 1982), 152-54. See also Joseph Dan's foreword to Gershom Scholem, The Mystical Shape of the Godhead,1-14. A six-volume collection of papers from the Eranos conferencesedited by Joseph Campbell has been published by Princeton UniversityPress as Bollingen Series XXX.
  159. "Analysis of thepsychological implications of using Kabbalistic techniques to attainparanormal experiences cannot be avoided. If the approach proposed hereto see Kabbalah more in terms of experiential phenomena than has beenpreviously done is correct, then psychology, as an invaluable tool,must gradually be integrated into future study of this kind ofmysticism." Idel, Kabbalah, 25.
  160. For a summary of Yates's debt to Scholem, see the introduction to her The Occult Philosophy in the Elizabethan Age, 1-3.
  161. In addition to The American Religion, see Bloom's Kabbalah and Criticism (New York: Seabury Press, 1975); and his critical interpretation titled "A Reading," in Marvin Meyer, The Gospel of Thomas: The Hidden Sayings of Jesus (San Francisco: Harper, 1992), 111-21.


 

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Comentarios

Hola hermano, soy Miembro de la Iglesia y no soy mason, pero en su defecto soy un Rosacruz iniciado, como vos, soy de los que comprendo el mormonismo desde otra perspectiva, historica, hermeneutica, gnostica y teologica. Aunque no te puedo detallar, por cuestion de espacios, mis ideas, tengo un leve ensayo sobre el mormonismo y la masoneria, simbologia mormona y el porque Jose Smith queria restaurar la iglesia, por medio de la masoneria, y que el libro del mormon cambia de forma, cuando uno lo lee desde una perspectiva gnostica, como cuando uno lee el señor de los añillo o las aventuras de narnia, es diferente y no se debe buscar el libro desde una perspectiva historica, sino teologica y mistica, es tanto, como la tora, hay leerlo en clave, soy de los que creo que el libro del mormon no es historico, no paso lo que dice hay, sino que es mas profundo, es esoterico, en iniciatico y tiene como objeto revelar un camino. Por eso cuando dicen que no hay evidencias en la historia del libro del mormon, yo solo sonrio y digo: no lo saben leer, no aprendieron la enseñanza, no profundizaron. Para vos o para mi que somos iniciados, sabemos muy bien la alegoria, yo relaciono el libro del Mormon con las Bodas Alquimicas de Cristian Rosenkrauz, es tanto que Smith uso el dije de Jupiter, es claro, lo uso, y es claro que la iglesia es verdadera, pero la verdad no es la eklesia como tal, sino la fuerza que el espiritu, el campo, la gnosis, se manifiesta cuando todos estamos unidos....... usted lo comprende o uno como rosacruz lo comprende. Por eso para mi Jose Smith mas que un profeta, fue un iniciado .

O texto é muito bom mas acredito que quedaria melhor separando a tradução do original ingles

Excelente postagem meu mano, eu buscava justamente este assunto, você me ajudou bastante. Também sou membro de A Igreja de Jesus Cristo dos Santos dos Últimos Dias, sou um Sumo Sacerdote, e Mestre Maçom. Abraços

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